SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on an accrual basis of accounting in accordance with GAAP and applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) regarding interim financial reporting. Certain information and disclosures normally included in consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. Accordingly, these unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes for the year ended December 31, 2021. The condensed balance sheet as of December 31, 2021, included herein, was derived from the consolidated financial statements of the Company as of that date.
These unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments necessary to present fairly the Company’s financial position as of September 30, 2022 and the Company’s results of operations and comprehensive loss, convertible preferred stock and stockholders’ deficit activities, and the cash flows for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021. The results for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the year ending December 31, 2022 or for any interim period or for any other future year.
Principles of Consolidation
These unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements include Energy Vault Holdings, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
If the Company has a variable interest in an entity, an assessment is performed to determine if that entity is a variable interest entity (“VIE”), and if so, if the Company is the primary beneficiary of the VIE. The assessment of whether an entity is a VIE requires an evaluation of qualitative factors and, where applicable, quantitative factors. These factors include: (i) determining whether the entity has sufficient equity at risk, (ii) evaluating whether the equity holders, as a group, lack the ability to make decisions that significantly affect the economic performance of the entity, and (iii) determining whether the entity is structured with disproportionate voting rights in relation to their equity interests. The Company has determined that it is not the primary beneficiary of any VIEs in which it has a variable interest.
Emerging Growth Company
Section 102(b)(1) of the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”) exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies (that is, those that have not had a Securities Act registration statement declared effective or do not have a class of securities registered under the Exchange Act) are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies but any such election to opt out is irrevocable. The Company has elected not to opt out of such extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised, and it has different application dates for public or private companies, the Company, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard.
This may make comparison of the Company’s consolidated financial statement with another public company that is neither an emerging growth company nor an emerging growth company that has opted out of using the extended transition period difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the condensed consolidated financial statements, in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. The Company evaluates its assumptions on an ongoing basis. The Company’s management believes that the estimates, judgment, and assumptions used are reasonable based upon information available at the time they are made. Significant estimates made by management include, among others, valuation of inventory, pension obligations, fair value of financial instruments including embedded derivatives, stock-based compensation, valuation of deferred income tax assets, revenue recognition, and the estimated useful life of long-lived assets. Due to the
inherent uncertainty involved in making assumptions and estimates, changes in circumstances, including those arising from the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, could result in actual results differing from those estimates, and such differences could be material to the Company’s consolidated financial condition and results of operations.
The Company reports its operating results and financial information in one operating and reportable segment. Our chief operating decision maker, which is our chief executive officer, reviews our operating results on a consolidated basis and uses that consolidated financial information to make operating decisions, assess financial performance, and allocate resources.
Transaction costs consist of direct legal, accounting, and other fees related to the consummation of the Merger. These costs were initially capitalized as incurred in prepaid assets and other current assets in the condensed consolidated balance sheet. Upon the Closing, transaction costs related to the issuance of shares were recognized in stockholders’ deficit while costs associated with the public and private warrants liabilities were expensed in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. As of December 31, 2021, $4.1 million of deferred Merger transaction costs were included within prepaid and other current assets in the condensed consolidated balance sheet. The Company and Novus incurred in aggregate $44.8 million in transaction costs, consisting of underwriting, legal, and other professional fees, of which $24.2 million was recorded to additional paid-in-capital as a reduction of proceeds and the remaining $20.6 million was expensed immediately upon the Closing.
The Company assumed publicly-traded warrants (“Public Warrants”) and private warrants (“Private Warrants”) upon the Closing. The Company accounts for warrants for shares of the Company’s common stock that are not indexed to its own stock as liabilities at fair value on the condensed consolidated balance sheets. The warrants are subject to remeasurement at each balance sheet date and any change in fair value is recognized in the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations. For issued or modified warrants that meet all of the criteria for equity classification, the warrants are required to be recorded as a component of additional paid-in-capital at the time of issuance. For issued or modified warrants that do not meet all the criteria for equity classification, the warrants are required to be recorded as a liability at their initial fair value on the date of issuance, and each balance sheet date thereafter. Changes in the estimated fair value of the warrants are recognized as a non-cash gain or loss in the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
In connection with the reverse recapitalization and pursuant to the Merger Agreement, eligible Legacy Energy Vault stockholders immediately prior to the Closing, have the contingent right to receive an aggregate of 9.0 million shares of the Company’s common stock (“Earn-Out Shares”) upon the Company achieving each Earn-Out Triggering Event (defined below) during the period beginning on the 90th day following the Closing and ending in the third anniversary of such date (the “Earn-Out Period”). An “Earn-Out Triggering Event” means the date on which the closing price of the Company’s common stock quoted on the NYSE is greater than or equal to certain specified prices for any 20 trading days within a 30 consecutive day trading period.
The Earn-Out Shares were recognized at fair value upon the Closing of the Merger and classified in shareholders’ equity. Because the Merger was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization, the issuance of the Earn-Out Shares was treated as a deemed dividend and since the Company does not have retained earnings, the issuance was recorded within additional-paid-in capital (“APIC”) and has a net nil impact on APIC.
Revenue from Contracts with Customers
The Company recognizes revenue from contracts with customers in accordance with ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”). Under ASC 606, revenue is recognized when, or as, control of promised goods and services is transferred to customers, and the amount of revenue recognized reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for the goods and services transferred. The Company determines revenue recognition through the following steps:
(1)Identification of the contract, or contracts, with a customer.
(2)Identification of the performance obligations in the contract.
(3)Determination of the transaction price.
(4)Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract.
(5)Recognition of revenue when, or as, a performance obligation is satisfied.
Once a contract is determined to be within the scope of ASC 606, the Company assesses the goods or services promised within each contract and determines those that are performance obligations. Arrangements that include rights to additional goods or services that are exercisable at a customer’s discretion are generally considered options. The Company assesses if these options provide a material right to the customer and if so, they are considered performance obligations. The identification of material rights requires judgments related to the determination of the value of the underlying good or service relative to the option exercise price.
The Company assesses whether each promised good or service is distinct for the purposes of identifying performance obligations in the contract. This assessment involves subjective determination and requires management to make judgments about the individual promised goods or services and whether such are separable from the other aspects of the contractual relationship. Promised goods and services are considered to be distinct provided that: (i) the customer can benefit from the good or service either on its own or together with the other resources that are readily available to the customer (that is, the good or service is capable of being distinct) and (ii) the entity’s promise to transfer the good or service to the customer is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract (that is, the promise to transfer the good or service is distinct within the context of the contract). The Company also considers the intended benefit of the contract in assessing whether a promised good or service is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract. If a promised good or service is not distinct, an entity is required to combine that good or service with other promised goods or services until it identifies a bundle of goods or services that is distinct.
The transaction price is determined and allocated to the identified performance obligations in proportion to their stand-alone selling prices (“SSP”) on a relative SSP basis. SSP is determined at contract inception and is not updated to reflect changes between contract inception and when the performance obligations are satisfied. Determining the SSP for performance obligations requires significant judgment. In developing the SSP for a performance obligation, the Company considers applicable market conditions and relevant entity-specific factors, including factors that were contemplated in negotiating the agreement with the customer and estimated costs.
In determining the transaction price, the Company adjusts consideration for the effects of the time value of money if the timing of payments provides the Company with a significant benefit of financing. The Company does not assess whether a contract has a significant financing component if the expectation at contract inception is such that the period between payment and the transfer of the promised goods or services will be one year or less. As of September 30, 2022, the Company does not have any contracts that contain a significant financing component.
The Company recognizes as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when (or as) each performance obligation is satisfied, either at a point in time or over time. Over time revenue recognition is based on the use of an output or input method.
Build and Transfer Energy Storage Projects: The Company enters into contracts with utility companies and independent power producers to build and transfer energy storage projects. The Company has entered into contracts to build and transfer battery-based energy storage projects and intends to enter into contracts to build and transfer gravity-based energy storage projects in the future. Each storage project is customized depending on the customer’s energy needs. Customer payments are due upon meeting certain milestones that are consistent with contract-specific phases of a project. The Company determines the transaction price based on the consideration expected to be received, which includes estimates of liquidated damages or other variable consideration. Generally, each contract to design and construct an energy storage project contains one performance obligation. Multiple contracts entered into with the same customer and near the same time to construct energy storage projects are combined in accordance with ASC 606. In these situations, the contract prices are aggregated and then allocated to each energy storage project based upon their relative stand-alone selling price.
The Company recognizes revenue over time as a result of the continuous transfer of control of its products to the customer. The continuous transfer of control to the customer is supported by clauses in the contracts that provide enforceable rights to
payment of the transaction price associated with work performed to date for products that do not have an alternative use to the Company and/or the project is built on the customer’s land that is under the customer’s control.
Revenue for these performance obligations is recognized using the percentage of completion method based on cost incurred as a percentage of total estimated contract costs. Contract costs include all direct materials and labor costs related to contract performance. Pre-contract costs with no future benefit are expensed in the period in which they are incurred. Since the revenue recognition of these contracts depends on estimates, which are assessed continually during the term of the contract, recognized revenues and profit are subject to revisions as the contract progresses to completion. The cumulative effects of revisions of estimated total contract costs and revenues, together with any contract reserves which may be deemed appropriate, are recorded in the period in which the facts and changes in circumstances become known. Due to uncertainties inherent in the estimation process, it is reasonably possible that these estimates will be revised in a different period. When a loss is forecasted for a contract, the full amount of the anticipated loss is recognized in the period in which it is determined that a loss will incur.
The Company’s contracts generally provide customers the right to liquidated damages (“LDs”) against Energy Vault in the event specified milestones are not met on time, or certain performance metrics are not met upon or after the substantial completion date. LDs are accounted for as variable consideration, and the contract price is reduced by the expected penalty or LD amount when recognizing revenue. Variable consideration is included in the transaction price only to the extent that it is improbable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will occur when the uncertainty is resolved. Estimating variable consideration requires certain estimates and assumptions, including whether and by how much a project will be delayed. The existence and measurement of liquidated damages may also be impacted by the Company’s judgment about the probability of favorable outcomes of customer disputes involving whether certain events qualify as force majeure or the reason for the events that caused project delays. Variable consideration for LDs is estimated using the expected value of the consideration to be received. If Energy Vault has a claim against the customer for an amount not specified in the contract, such claim is recognized as an increase to the contract price when it is legally enforceable, which is usually upon signing a respective change order or equivalent document confirming the claim acceptance by the customer.
Operate Energy Storage Projects: To date, the Company has not recognized any revenue related to providing operation services for its energy storage projects. The method of revenue recognition will be determined once the Company finalizes agreements with its future customers.
Energy Management Software as a Service: To date, the Company has not recognized any revenue related to providing energy management software as a service. The method of revenue recognition will be determined once the Company finalizes agreements with its future customers.
Intellectual Property Licensing: The Company enters into licensing agreements of its intellectual property that are within the scope of ASC 606. The terms of such licensing agreements include the license of functional intellectual property, given the functionality of the intellectual property is not expected to change substantially as a result of the licensor’s ongoing activities. The transaction price allocated to the licensing of intellectual property is recognized as revenue at a point in time when the licensed intellectual property is made available for the customer’s use and benefit. The Company’s intellectual property licensing revenue to date is only from one customer, Atlas Renewable LLC (“Atlas”), which was an investor in the Company’s PIPE.
As part of the Company’s licensing agreement with Atlas, the Company will provide Atlas with a final update to its functional intellectual property upon the completion of the Company’s research and development activities related to the intellectual property that was previously provided to Atlas. The Company identified the obligation to provide this update to Atlas as a performance obligation and deferred $5.9 million of the transaction price related to this performance obligation. The $5.9 million will be recognized as revenue when the Company completes the transfer of the final technology update to Atlas.
Additionally, the contract with Atlas includes variable consideration of $25.0 million due to the Company’s commitment to provide a $25.0 million refundable contribution to Atlas during the construction period of Atlas’ first project. The Company has considered this to be variable consideration as the Company will only be repaid the amount if Atlas’ first project reaches substantial completion and certain performance metrics are met. The Company has determined that it is probable that Atlas will reach substantial completion and meet the performance metrics to repay Energy Vault, therefore
the variable consideration has been included in the transaction price. As of September 30, 2022, the Company has contributed $22.5 million of the $25.0 million. The $22.5 million refundable contribution is included in the line item, contract assets, on the condensed consolidated balance sheets.
Royalty Revenue: In connection with entering into intellectual property licensing agreements, the Company also enters into royalty agreements whereby the customer agrees to pay the Company a percentage of the customer’s future sales revenue that is generated by using the Company’s intellectual property. The Company has not recognized any royalty revenue to date, but will recognize royalty revenue at the point in time when the customer’s sales occur.
Other Revenue: In connection with entering into the intellectual property licensing agreement with Atlas, the Company agreed to provide construction support services to Atlas during the periods in which they construct energy storage projects. Energy Vault is reimbursed by Atlas at the Company’s cost to provide these services. Because the construction support services are considered to be an option for the customer to obtain services from the Company, this obligation was considered to be a performance obligation and required an allocation of the transaction price. The transaction price allocated to construction support services and deferred at the inception of the contract was $1.2 million. This amount is recognized as revenue over time using the cost-to-cost measure of progress as that method offers the best depiction of the continuous transfer of services to the customer.
Accounts receivable represents amounts that have been billed to customers and do not bear interest. Receivables are carried at amortized cost. The Company periodically assesses collectability of its receivables from each customer and records an allowance for doubtful accounts for the estimated uncollectible amount when deemed appropriate. If circumstances related to specific customers change, the Company’s estimates of the recoverability of receivables could be adjusted. Accounts are written off after all means of collection, including legal action, have been exhausted. As of both September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, no allowance for doubtful accounts has been recorded.
Restricted cash as of September 30, 2022 was $25.1 million on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet. Substantially all of the restricted cash balance was held by banks as collateral for the Company’s letters of credit.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments — Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. ASU 2016-13 amends the impairment model to utilize an expected loss methodology in place of the currently used incurred loss methodology, which will result in the more timely recognition of losses. The new accounting standard will be effective for the fiscal year beginning on January 1, 2023, including interim periods within that year. The Company does not expect that adoption of this standard will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In August 2020, FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, Debt — Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging — in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity (“ASU 2020-06”). ASU 2020-06 simplifies the accounting for convertible instruments. In addition to eliminating certain accounting models, this ASU includes improvements to the disclosures for convertible instruments and earnings-per-share (EPS) guidance and amends the guidance for the derivatives scope exception for contracts in an entity’s own equity. ASU 2020-06 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021. The Company adopted ASU 2020-06 on January 1, 2022 and it did not have an impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.
In December 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (“ASU 2019-12”), which simplifies the accounting for income taxes. ASU 2019-12 is effective for nonpublic entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022. The Company adopted ASU 2019-12 on January 1, 2022 and it did not have an impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef