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 Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3)
 Registration No. 333-262720
PROSPECTUS
Energy Vault Holdings, Inc.
Up to 111,151,176 Shares of
Common Stock
5,166,666 Warrants to Purchase
Common Stock
This prospectus relates to the issuance by us of up to an aggregate of up to 9,583,256 shares of our common stock, $0.0001 par value per share (“Common Stock”) that are issuable upon the exercise of our publicly-traded warrants (the “Public Warrants”) and up to 5,166,666 shares of our Common Stock issuable upon exercise of private placement warrants issued to our Founders (as defined below) at an exercise price of $11.50 per share (the “Private Warrants” and together with the Public Warrants, the “Warrants”). This prospectus also relates to the resale from time to time, upon the expiration of lock-up agreements, by (i) the selling stockholders named in this prospectus or their permitted transferees (the “Selling Stockholders”) of up to 96,401,254 shares of our Common Stock and (ii) the selling holders of 5,166,666 Private Warrants (the “Selling Warrantholders,” together with the Selling Stockholders, the “Selling Securityholders”).
The Selling Securityholders may offer, sell or distribute all or a portion of the shares of Common Stock and Private Warrants registered hereby publicly or through private transactions at prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices or as distributions in kind to their members, partners or stockholders pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part by delivering a prospectus with a plan of distribution. We provide more information about how the Selling Securityholders may sell the securities in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution.”
We will pay certain offering fees and expenses and fees in connection with the registration of the Common Stock and Private Warrants and will not receive proceeds from the sale of the shares of Common Stock or Private Warrants by the Selling Securityholders. We will receive the proceeds from any exercise of any Warrants for cash.
Our Common Stock and Public Warrants are listed on the NYSE under the symbols “NRGV” and “NRGV WS,” respectively. On May 5, 2022, the closing price of our Common Stock was $14.21 and the closing price for our Public Warrants was $2.53. The Private Warrants were originally purchased at a price of $1.50, and the shares of Common Stock registered hereby for resale were purchased at prices no higher than $10.00 per share. In particular, the 3,974,520 Founder Shares (as defined in this prospectus) were purchased at a price of $0.004 per share; the 19,500,005 PIPE Shares (as defined in this prospectus) were purchased at a price of $10.00 per share; the 5,166,666 shares issuable upon exercise of the Private Warrants (to the extent exercised) will have a purchase price of $11.50 per share, subject to certain specified adjustments; and the remaining 72,926,729 shares of our Common Stock were purchased from Legacy Energy Vault (as defined in this prospectus) at a weighted-average purchase price of $1.52, after giving effect to the exchange ratio in the Business Combination (as defined in this prospectus). Based on the closing prices of our securities on May 5, 2022, the Selling Securityholders would have a potential unrealized gain of approximately $1.1 billion in the aggregate. The sale or possibility of sale of these securities trading in the public market may negatively impact the market price of our Common Stock or the Public Warrants. To the extent that the price of our common stock exceeds $11.50 per share, it is more likely that warrantholders will exercise their warrants. To the extent that the price of our Common Stock declines, particularly if the price is less than $11.50 per share, it is less likely that warrantholders will exercise their Warrants.
We are an “emerging growth company” under applicable federal securities laws and will be subject to reduced public company reporting requirements.
INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS THAT ARE DESCRIBED IN THE “RISK FACTORS” SECTION BEGINNING ON PAGE 9 OF THIS PROSPECTUS.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of the securities to be issued under this prospectus or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is May 6, 2022.

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F-1
You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus. No one has been authorized to provide you with information that is different from that contained in this prospectus. This prospectus is dated as of the date set forth on the cover hereof. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than that date.
For investors outside the United States: We have not done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. You are required to inform yourselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus.
 
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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-1 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) using the “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, the Selling Securityholders may, from time to time, sell the securities offered by them described in this prospectus. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale by such Selling Securityholders of the securities offered by them described in this prospectus.
Neither we nor the Selling Securityholders have authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. Neither we nor the Selling Securityholders take responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. Neither we nor the Selling Securityholders will make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
We may also provide a prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment to the registration statement to add information to, or update or change information contained in, this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment to the registration statement together with the additional information to which we refer you in the sections of this prospectus entitled “Where You Can Find More Information.”
On February 11, 2022 (the “Closing Date”), Novus Capital Corporation II, our predecessor company (“Novus”), consummated the previously announced merger pursuant to that certain Business Combination Agreement and Plan of Reorganization, dated as of September 8, 2021 (the “Business Combination Agreement”), by and among Novus, NCCII Merger Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Novus incorporated in the State of Delaware (“Merger Sub”) and Energy Vault, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Legacy Energy Vault”). Pursuant to the terms of the Business Combination Agreement, a business combination between the Company and Legacy Energy Vault was effected through the merger of Merger Sub with and into Legacy Energy Vault, with Legacy Energy Vault surviving as the surviving company and as a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company (the “Merger” and, collectively with the other transactions described in the Business Combination Agreement, the “Business Combination”). On the Closing Date, and in connection with the closing of the Business Combination (the “Closing”), Novus Capital Corporation II changed its name to Energy Vault Holdings, Inc.
Unless the context indicates otherwise, references in this prospectus to the “Company,” “Energy Vault,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to Energy Vault Holdings, Inc. (f/k/a Novus Capital Corporation II) and its consolidated subsidiaries (including Legacy Energy Vault). References to “Novus” refer to our predecessor company prior to the consummation of the Business Combination.
 
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FREQUENTLY USED
TERMS
In this document:

“Board” or “Board of Directors” means the board of directors of Energy Vault.

“Business Combination” means the transactions contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement.

“Business Combination Agreement” means that Business Combination Agreement, dated as of September 8, 2021, by and among Novus, Merger Sub and Legacy Energy Vault.

“Code” means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.

“DGCL” means the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.

“Energy Vault” means Energy Vault Holdings, Inc., a Delaware corporation.

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

“Founders” means the Initial Stockholders and NCCII Co-Invest LLC.

“Founder Shares” means 3,974,520 shares of Common Stock that currently are owned by the Initial Stockholders, The Founder Shares were shares of Class B Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share, of Novus that automatically converted into shares of Common Stock upon the closing of the Business Combination.

“GAAP” means U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

“Initial Stockholders” means Robert J. Laikin, Zak Laikin, Cooper Laikin, Hanna Laikin, Larry Gretchen Paulson Trust, New Frontier LLC, Ronald J. Sznaider, Cliff Ventures LLC, V Donargo LLC, Novus Capital Associates, LLC, KNC I LLC, KNC II LLC, and Heather Goodman and Doug Raetz, Tenants in Common.

“Investment Company Act” means the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.

“IPO” means Novus’s initial public offering, consummated on February 8, 2021, of 28,750,000 units at $10.00 per unit.

“JOBS Act” means the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012.

“Legacy Energy Vault” means Energy Vault, Inc., a Delaware corporation.

“Merger Sub” means NCCII Merger Corp., a Delaware corporation and a wholly owned subsidiary of Novus.

“NYSE” means the New York Stock Exchange.

“public shares” means shares of Common Stock included in the public units.

“public stockholders” means holders of public shares, including the Initial Stockholders to the extent the Initial Stockholders hold public shares; provided, that the Initial Stockholders are considered a “public stockholder” only with respect to any public shares held by them.

“public units” means the units sold in the IPO, consisting of one share of Common Stock and one-third of one Public Warrant.

“SEC” means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

“Second A&R Bylaws” means our second amended and restated bylaws, dated February 11, 2022.

“Second A&R Charter” means our second amended and restated certificate of incorporation, dated February 11, 2022.

“Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

“SOX” means the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
 
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“Novus” means Novus Capital Corporation II, a Delaware corporation, prior to the completion of the Business Combination.

“Transfer Agent” means Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company.

“Warrants” means the Public Warrants and the Private Warrants.
 
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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Certain statements contained in this prospectus may constitute “forward-looking statements” for purposes of the federal securities laws. The Company’s forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding its and its management team’s expectations, hopes, beliefs, intentions or strategies regarding the future. In addition, any statements that refer to projections, forecasts or other characterizations of future events or circumstances, including any underlying assumptions, are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intends,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “will,” “would” and similar expressions may identify forward-looking statements, but the absence of these words does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking. Forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus may include, for example, statements about:

the expected benefits of the Business Combination;

the Company’s financial and business performance, including financial projections and business metrics;

changes the Company’s strategy, expansion plans, customer opportunities, future operations, future financial position, estimated revenues and losses, projected costs, prospects and plans;

the implementation, market acceptance and success of the Company’s business model and growth strategy;

the Company’s ability to develop and maintain its brand and reputation;

developments and projections relating to the Company’s competitors and industry;

the impact of health epidemics, including the COVID-19 pandemic, on the Company’s business and the actions it may take in response thereto;

the Company’s expectations regarding its ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection and not infringe on the rights of others;

expectations regarding the time during which the Company will be an emerging growth company under the JOBS Act;

the Company’s future capital requirements and sources and uses of cash;

the Company’s ability to obtain funding for its operations and future growth; and

the Company’s business, expansion plans and opportunities.
These forward-looking statements are based on information available as of the date of this prospectus, and current expectations, forecasts and assumptions, and involve a number of judgments, risks and uncertainties. Accordingly, forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as representing the Company’s views as of any subsequent date, and the Company does not undertake any obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date they were made, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws.
You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. As a result of a number of known and unknown risks and uncertainties, the Company’s actual results or performance may be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Some factors that could cause actual results to differ include:

the outcome of any legal proceedings that may be instituted against the Company following the Closing of the Business Combination and transactions contemplated thereby;

the ability to maintain the listing of the Common Stock on the NYSE following the Business Combination;

the risk that the Business Combination disrupts current plans and operations of the Company as a result of the consummation of the transactions described herein;
 
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risks relating to the uncertainty of the projected financial information with respect to the Company;

risks relating to the anticipated growth rates and market opportunities of the Company;

risks related to the rollout of the Company’s business and the timing of expected business milestones;

risks relating to changes in the demand for renewable energy and associated energy storage systems, both in the United States and internationally;

the implementation, market acceptance and success of the Company’s solutions, including the EVx and EVRC systems and any digital platform it may develop, and its technologies;

the Company’s ability to maintain and develop relationships with third-party partners;

the Company’s ability to identify and complete sales with customers, including entering into sales agreements;

developments relating to the renewable energy and energy storage industry, including impacts arising from fuel prices and hydrocarbon fuel sources, which may make renewable energy less competitive in pricing;

the Company’s expectations regarding its ability to obtain, maintain and enforce its intellectual property and its ability not to infringe on the intellectual property rights of others;

the Company’s ability to comply with extensive, complex and evolving regulatory requirements applicable to the renewable energy and energy storage industry and environmental related risks with respect to any hazardous waste used in its custom-made composite block or “mobile masses”;

the Company’s ability to obtain and maintain governmental permits and approvals, including those needed for construction at any future project that the Company may obtain;

the Company’ ability to recognize the anticipated benefits of the Business Combination, which may be affected by, among other things, competition and the ability of the Company to grow and manage growth profitably following the Business Combination;

changes in applicable laws or regulations;

the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures taken in response thereto on the Company’s business and the economy in general;

the ability of the Company to execute its business model, including market acceptance of its systems and related services;

the Company’s ability to raise capital;

the possibility that the Company may be adversely affected by other economic, business, and/or competitive factors;

any changes to U.S. tax laws; and

other risks and uncertainties set forth in this prospectus in the section titled “Risk Factors.”
In addition, statements that the “Company believes” and similar statements reflect the Company’s beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to the Company as of the date of this prospectus, and while the Company believes such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and such statements should not be read to indicate that such party has conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.
 
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SUMMARY OF THE PROSPECTUS
This summary highlights selected information from this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that is important to you in making an investment decision. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the more detailed information included in this prospectus. Before making your investment decision with respect to our securities, you should carefully read this entire prospectus, including the information under “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.
Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to “we,” “our,” “us” and other similar terms refer to Energy Vault.
Energy Vault
Energy Vault develops sustainable, grid-scale energy storage solutions designed to advance the transition to a carbon free, resilient power grid. Energy Vault’s mission is to accelerate the decarbonization of our economy through the development of sustainable and economical energy storage technologies. To achieve this, Energy Vault is developing a proprietary gravity-based energy storage technology. Energy Vault is also designing proprietary energy management software based on artificial intelligence (AI), advanced optimization algorithms designed to control and optimize entire energy systems and a flexible energy storage integration platform suitable for storage technologies of many durations. Energy Vault’s product platform aims to help utilities, independent power producers, and large energy users significantly reduce their levelized cost of energy while maintaining power reliability.
The mailing address of Energy Vault’s principal executive office is 4360 Park Terrace Drive, Suite 100, Westlake Village, California 93161, and its telephone number is (805) 852-0000.
For more information about Energy Vault, see the sections entitled “Business,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Risk Factors” and the financial statements of Energy Vault included herein.
The Business Combination
On February 11, 2022 (the “Closing Date”), Energy Vault consummated the previously announced business combination (the “Closing”) pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement. At the Closing, Merger Sub merged with and into Legacy Energy Vault, with Legacy Energy Vault surviving the merger as a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company (the “Merger”). As a result of the Business Combination, Legacy Energy Vault became a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company.
Pursuant to the terms of the Business Combination Agreement, each stockholder of Legacy Energy Vault received 6.7735 shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Common Stock”) and the contingent right to receive certain Earn Out Shares (as defined below), for each share of Legacy Energy Vault common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, owned by such Legacy Energy Vault stockholder that was outstanding immediately prior to the Closing. In addition, certain investors (such investors, the “Subscribers”) purchased an aggregate of 19,500,005 shares of Common Stock (such shares, the “PIPE Shares”) concurrently with the Closing for an aggregate purchase price of $195,000,050. Additionally, at the Closing, after giving effect to the forfeiture of certain shares by the Founders, each outstanding share of the Novus’s Class B common stock, par value $0.0001 per share was converted into a share of Common Stock on a one-for-one basis.
In addition, pursuant to the terms of the Business Combination Agreement, at the effective time of the Merger (the “Effective Time”), (1) options to purchase shares of common stock of Legacy Energy Vault were converted into options to purchase an aggregate of 1,179,848 shares of Common Stock at a weighted average exercise price of $0.71 per share, (2) restricted stock units to acquire shares of common stock of Legacy Energy Vault were converted into restricted stock units that represent the right to acquire an aggregate of 7,284,511 shares of Common Stock and (3) awards of outstanding restricted shares of Legacy Energy Vault Common Stock issued pursuant to a grant agreement under Energy Vault’s 2017 Stock Incentive Plan or otherwise, whether vested or unvested, were converted into restricted stock awards with respect to an aggregate of 609,615 shares of Common Stock.
 
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During the time period between the Closing Date and the third anniversary of the Closing, eligible former equityholders of Legacy Energy Vault may receive up to 9,000,000 additional shares of Common Stock (the “Earn Out Shares”) in the aggregate in three equal tranches upon the achievement of certain earn out targets (as further described in the Business Combination Agreement).
Risk Factors
Investing in our securities involves risks. You should carefully consider the risks described in “Risk Factors” beginning on page 9 before making a decision to invest in our Common Stock. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition and results of operations would likely be materially adversely affected. In such case, the trading price of our securities would likely decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment. Set forth below is a summary of some of the principal risks we face:

Energy Vault is an early stage company with a history of losses, and it expects to incur significant expenses and continuing losses for the foreseeable future, and it may not be able to achieve profitability in the future;

Energy Vault’s limited operating history and its rapidly evolving industry make it difficult to evaluate Energy Vault’s business, the risks and challenges it may face and future prospects;

The engineering of Energy Vault’s systems is in continuous refinement to improve system cost and efficiency. There is no guarantee that it will be successful in implementing all improvements under the expected schedule;

There is no assurance that non-binding letters of intent and other indications of interest will be converted into binding orders or sales. Customers may cancel or delay the non-binding letters of intent and other indications of interest in Energy Vault’s sales pipeline;

Energy Vault’s systems are based on established principles that are deployed in a novel way to create new technologies to store energy and potential customers may be hesitant to make a significant investment in Energy Vault’s technology or abandon the technology they are currently using;

Energy Vault’s systems include complex software and technology systems and do not have a meaningful history of operation, and there can be no assurance such systems and technology will perform as expected or that software, engineering or other technical defects will not be discovered until after a system is installed and operated by a customer.

If Energy Vault’s EVx systems contain manufacturing or construction defects, its business and financial results could be harmed;

The performance and availability of Energy Vault’s products, services and systems may be affected by factors outside of its control, which could result in harm to its business and financial results;

If any of Energy Vault’s products are or are alleged to be defective in design or manufacturing or experience other failures, Energy Vault may be compelled to undertake corrective actions, which could adversely affect its business, prospects, operating results, reputation and financial condition;

Energy Vault’s systems’ performance may not meet its customers’ expectations or needs;

Energy Vault’s systems involve a lengthy sales and installation cycle, and if it fails to close sales on a regular and timely basis it could harm its business. Moreover, the long sales cycles for Energy Vault’s products may cause it to incur significant expenses without offsetting revenues; and

The failure or inability of Energy Vault’s suppliers to deliver necessary components or raw materials for construction of its systems in a timely manner could cause installation delays, cancellations, penalty payments and damage to its reputation.

If the selling security holders sell their securities, it may negatively impact the market price of the shares of our Common Stock and such holders still may receive significant proceeds.
 
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THE OFFERING
Issuer
Energy Vault Holdings, Inc.
Issuance of Common Stock
Shares of Common Stock Offered by Us
14,749,922 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the Warrants
Shares of Common Stock Outstanding Prior to Exercise of the Warrants
133,633,288 shares
Shares of Common Stock Outstanding Assuming Exercise of the Warrants
148,383,210 shares
Exercise Price of Public Warrants and Private Warrants
$11.50 per share, subject to adjustment as described herein
Use of Proceeds
We will receive proceeds equal to the aggregate exercise price from any exercises of the Warrants, assuming the exercise of the Warrants for cash. The amount of such cash proceeds, if any, will depend on the prevailing market price of our Common Stock. The exercise price for any of our Public Warrants and our Private Warrants is $11.50 per share, subject to certain specified adjustments. To the extent that the price of our Common Stock exceeds $11.50 per share, it is more likely that warrant holders will exercise their warrants. If the price of our Common Stock is less than$11.50 per share, it is less likely that warrant holders will exercise their warrants.We expect to use the net proceeds from the exercise of the Warrants for general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds.”
Resale of Common Stock and Private Warrants
Common Stock Offered by the Selling Stockholders
Up to 96,401,254 shares.
Private Warrants to be sold by the Selling Warrantholders
Up to 5,166,666 warrants
Use of Proceeds
We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of the shares of Common Stock or Private Warrants by the Selling Securityholders.
Market for Our Shares of Common Stock and Warrants
Our Common Stock and Public Warrants are listed on the NYSE under the symbol “NRGV” and “NRGV WS,” respectively.
Risk Factors
Any investment in the securities offered hereby is speculative and involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the information set forth under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus.
 
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RISK FACTORS
An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below before making an investment decision. Our business, prospects, financial condition, or operating results could be harmed by any of these risks, as well as other risks not known to us or that we consider immaterial as of the date of this prospectus. The trading price of our securities could decline due to any of these risks, and, as a result, you may lose all or part of your investment.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
We are an early stage company with a history of losses, and expect to incur significant expenses and continuing losses for the foreseeable future, and we may not be able to achieve profitability in the future.
Since our inception in October 2017, we have incurred significant net losses and have used significant cash in our business. As of December 31, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $69.0 million, and a net loss of $31.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. We expect to continue to expand our operations, including by investing in manufacturing, sales and marketing, research and development and infrastructure to support our growth. We anticipate that we will incur net losses for the foreseeable future and, even if we begin to record revenue, there is no guarantee that we will become profitable. Our ability to achieve profitability in the future will depend on a number of factors, including:

successfully implementing our products on a commercial scale;

achieving meaningful sales volume;

the successful and timely development of a digital platform by our Energy Vault Solutions division;

attracting customers;

expanding into geographical markets;

our future customers’ ability to attract and retain financing partners who are willing to provide financing for sales on a timely basis and with attractive terms;

continuing to improve the expected useful life of our gravity-based energy storage technology and reducing our warranty servicing costs;

the cost of producing our EVx systems, including our mobile masses;

ability to execute on our strategy to reduce costs, in the amount and on the timing projected;

adding waste material, such as coal ash and wind turbine blades, in the production of mobile masses;

improving the efficiency and predictability of our construction processes;

entering into agreements with suppliers and service providers for the maintenance of our systems and other strategic relationships;

improving the effectiveness of our sales and marketing activities and any independent sales representatives that we may engage;

attracting and retaining key talent in a competitive marketplace;

the amount of stock-based compensation that Energy Vault recognizes in a given period;

identifying new opportunities for other business to integrate our product into their operations;

fluctuations in the costs of steel and raw materials;

legal and commercial acceptance of the incorporation of waste material (including, but not limited to, coal ash) into our mobile masses; and

delays associated with obtaining construction permits and potential regulatory review.
Even if we do achieve profitability, we may be unable to sustain or increase our profitability in the future.
 
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Our limited operating history and our rapidly evolving industry make it difficult to evaluate our business, the risks and challenges we may face and future prospects.
From our inception in October 2017 to the present, we have focused principally on developing and proving our fundamental gravity energy storage technology, formulating and implementing the EV1 design, and only recently designed the new EVx and EVRC platforms, which are the systems we are seeking to commercialize. As a result, we have a limited history operating our business, and therefore a limited history upon which you can base an investment decision. We have built only one EV1 system, which serves as a commercial demonstration unit, and we have not deployed any other systems as of the date of this prospectus. Further, we have not yet finalized the design of our EVx system or our EVRC platform.
Our EVx systems and our EVRC platform are new types of products in the rapidly evolving energy storage industry. In light of the fact that the entire energy sector is undergoing a major transition, from thermal generation to renewable energy generation, predicting our future revenue depends on the evolution of the market itself and market acceptance of our technology and systems. Moreover, budgeting for our expenses presents some uncertainty because of the unpredictability of the prices of raw materials and other trends that may emerge and affect our business. If actual results differ from our estimates or we adjust our estimates in future periods, our operating results and financial position could be materially and adversely affected. You should consider our prospects in light of the risks and uncertainties emerging companies encounter when introducing new products into a nascent industry.
The engineering of our systems is in continuous refinement to improve system cost and efficiency. There is no guarantee that we will be successful in implementing all improvements under the expected schedule.
Our business depends on our ability to succeed in implementing our EVx systems and EVRC platform and introduce innovative and competitive energy storage technologies. As of the date of this prospectus, we have not deployed a fully operational EVx system or EVRC platform. As our EVx systems are highly complex, this process is costly and time-consuming. Further, we have not yet finalized the design of our EVx system or our EVRC platform. The date of the first EVx deployment may be delayed, and we may incur more costs than we expect. In addition, the processes by which we engineer and manufacture mobile masses are still developing rapidly as we explore new processes and different techniques. Our business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition may be materially adversely affected if we do not successfully implement our systems or to the extent that such implementation occurs later or costs more than we expect. Examples of costs that we cannot control include the costs of electronics due to global allocation shortages or costs associated with construction delays.
Our ability to use net operating loss (“NOL”) carryforwards and other tax attributes may be limited in connection with ownership changes.
As stated above, we have incurred significant net losses during our history and our ability to become profitable in the near future is uncertain. To the extent that we continue to generate taxable losses, unused losses will carry forward to offset future taxable income, if any, until such unused losses expire (if at all). As of December 31, 2021, we had approximately $19.1 million, $11.8 million and $34.2 million of federal, state and foreign net operating loss carryforwards (“NOLs”). The foreign net operating loss carryforwards will begin to expire, if unutilized, beginning in 2025. Additionally, as of December 31, 2021, the Company had federal and state research tax credit carryforwards of $92,356 and $147,417, respectively.
Federal NOLs incurred in tax years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2021 may be carried back to each of the five tax years preceding such loss, and NOLs arising in tax years beginning after December 31, 2020 may not be carried back. Moreover, federal NOLs generated in taxable years ending after December 31, 2017, may be carried forward indefinitely, but the deductibility of such federal NOLs may be limited to 80% of our taxable income annually for tax years beginning after December 31, 2020. Our NOL carryforwards are subject to review and possible adjustment by the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”), and state tax authorities. In addition, in general, under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” is subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its pre-change NOLs or tax credits to offset future taxable income or taxes. For these purposes, an ownership change generally occurs where the aggregate stock ownership of one or more stockholders or groups of stockholders who own at least 5% of a corporation’s stock increases
 
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their ownership by more than 50 percentage points over their lowest ownership percentage within a specified testing period. Our existing NOLs or credits may be subject to limitations arising from previous ownership changes, and if we underwent an ownership change in connection with, or undergo an ownership change following, the Business Combination, our ability to utilize NOLs or credits could be further limited by Sections 382 and 383 of the Code. In addition, future changes in our stock ownership, many of which are outside of our control, could result in an ownership change under Sections 382 and 383 of the Code. Our NOLs or credits may also be impaired under state law. Accordingly, we may not be able to utilize a material portion of our NOLs or credits. If we determine that an ownership change has occurred and our ability to use our historical NOLs or credits is materially limited, it would harm our future operating results by effectively increasing our future tax obligations. Section 382 and 383 of the Code would apply to all net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards, whether the carryforward period is indefinite or not. If we earn taxable income, such limitations could result in increased future tax liability to us and our future cash flows could be adversely affected.
Our systems are based on established principles that are deployed in a novel way to create new technologies to store energy and potential customers may be hesitant to make a significant investment in our technology or abandon the technology they are currently using.
The design of our EVx systems and EVRC platform are based on established principles that are deployed in a novel way and will compete with alternative energy storage products based on other technologies, like lithium-ion battery technology. We believe that the continued growth and acceptance of energy storage generally will depend significantly on continued investment by the public and private sectors in the renewable energy industry, the regulatory environment towards carbon intensive power generation and the speed of transition towards electric mobility.
The adoption of renewable energy may not proceed as quickly as (or at the levels that) we expect and may be influenced by changes in regulatory environments, including incentives, fuel prices, public policy concerns and other factors beyond our control. Additionally, potential customers who previously invested in alternatives to our gravity based energy storage solution may not deem a transition to our existing or future gravity based energy storage solutions to be cost-effective. Moreover, given the limited history of our gravity based energy storage technology, potential customers may be hesitant to make a significant investment in our products. Our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects could be adversely affected to the extent that customers, for any reason, do not adopt our systems or migrate to our systems from another energy storage technology.
Our systems include complex software and technology systems and do not have a meaningful history of operation, and there can be no assurance such systems and technology will perform as expected or that software, engineering or other technical defects will not be discovered until after a system is installed and operated by a customer. If our EVx systems contain manufacturing or construction defects, our business and financial results could be harmed. In addition, the development and updating of these systems will require us to incur potentially significant costs and expenses.
To date, we have only built the CDU but have not yet deployed any EVx system or an EVRC, and these systems do not have any history of commercial operation. Once commercial production commences or our systems are installed and put into use by customers, our EVx systems, or any of our other products, may contain defects in design, manufacture or construction that may cause them not to perform as expected or may require repair. Because there is as of yet no prototype for our EVx systems or EVRCs and such systems are still under development, we currently have no frame of reference by which to evaluate the performance of our EVx systems and EVRCs upon which our business prospects depend. For example, our EVx systems and any EVRC will use a substantial amount of software to operate, which may require modification and updates over the life of such systems. Software products are inherently complex and often contain defects and errors when first introduced. Additionally, it is difficult for us to evaluate the manufacture and construction of our EVx systems or an EVRC until there are working examples that have been manufactured, constructed and used by us and/or our customers.
There can be no assurance that we will be able to detect and fix any defects in the hardware or software of our EVx systems or EVRCs, and such defects may not become apparent until a system is installed and
 
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operated by a customer. Our EVx systems and EVRCs may not perform consistent with customers’ expectations or consistent with other energy storage systems which may become available. Any product defects or any other failure of our EVx systems to perform as expected could harm our reputation and result in negative publicity, lost revenue, delivery delays, product liability claims and significant warranty and other expenses, and could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.
In addition, further development and updating of our EVx systems and EVRC platform will require us to incur potentially significant costs and expenses.
The performance and availability of our products, services and systems may be affected by factors outside of our control, which could result in harm to our business and financial results.
The performance and availability of our products, services and systems may be affected by factors outside of our control, such as inclement weather and natural disasters, failures in the power grid, acts of vandalism, shortages in skilled and qualified technical and construction personnel, shortages in raw materials or spare parts, fluctuations in commodities prices, bad performance or poor quality of equipment and/or infrastructure purchased from our suppliers and unforeseeable incidents or mistakes in the construction, commissioning or testing of prototype sites under the control of Energy Vault. The severity of such factors and frequency at which they occur are also outside our control. If such factors occur and affect the performance of our systems, our business and financial results could be harmed.
If any of our products are or are alleged to be defective in design or manufacturing or experience other failures, we may be compelled to undertake corrective actions, which could adversely affect our business, prospects, operating results, reputation and financial condition.
Once an EVRC or EVx system is delivered to a customer, some of the delivered product components may contain defects in design or manufacture that may cause them not to perform as expected or that may require repair and design changes. The EVRC and our EVx systems are complex and incorporate technology and components that may contain defects and errors, particularly when first introduced. We have a limited frame of reference from which to evaluate the long-term performance of our EVx systems and EVRCs in light of the fact that there is still no prototype for them. There can be no assurance that we will be able to detect and fix any defects in an EVRC or our EVx systems prior to the sale to potential consumers. If a mobile mass falls from an EVx system or an EVRC or our systems otherwise fail to perform as expected, customers may delay or cancel deliveries, generate negative publicity about us, terminate further orders or pursue warranty or other claims against us, each of which could adversely affect our sales and reputation and could adversely affect our business, prospects, and results of operations.
Our systems’ performance may not meet our customers’ expectations or needs.
The systems will be subject to various operating risks that may cause them to generate less value for our customers than expected. These risks include a failure or wearing out of our equipment or the equipment that our equipment connects into, an inability to find suitable replacement equipment or parts, or disruption in our distribution systems. Any extended interruption or failure of our customer’s projects, including systems we operate under the Storage Service Customer program, for any reason to generate the expected amount of output could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, our customers’ willingness to acquire additional systems or services from us may be impacted in the future if any of our systems incur operational issues that indicate expected future cash flows from the system are less than the carrying value. Any such outcome could adversely affect our operating results or ability to attract new customers.
If our estimates of the useful life for our energy storage systems are inaccurate or we do not meet service and warranties and performance guarantees, our business and financial results could be adversely affected.
We expect to provide warranties and performance guarantees of our systems. To date, we have only deployed our CDU, and we have not deployed any EVx system or an EVRC, and our estimates about product performance and life may prove to be incorrect. Failure to meet these warranties and performance guarantee
 
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levels may require the purchase price to be adjusted downward based on agreed-upon performance targets, or require us to make cash payments to the customer based on actual performance, as compared to expected performance.
Further, the occurrence of any defects, errors, disruptions in service, or other performance problems, interruptions, or delays with our systems, whether in connection with day-to-day operations or otherwise, could result in:

loss of customers;

loss or delayed market acceptance and sales of our hardware and software-enabled services;

delays in payment to us by customers;

injury to our reputation and brand;

legal claims, including warranty and service level agreement claims, against us; or

diversion of our resources, including through increased service and warranty expenses or financial concessions, and increased insurance costs.
The costs incurred in correcting any material defects or errors in our hardware and software or other performance problems may be substantial and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Through Energy Vault Solutions, we intend to continue exploring, the potential for offering, as a standalone product, a digital platform that could help energy storage businesses make decisions on when to charge their systems and when to sell their power. We are in the early stages of developing such a digital platform, and there is no assurance that a market for such a digital platform exists or that it would be as beneficial to us as we expect.
Through Energy Vault Solutions, we are in the early stages of exploring the potential for offering, as a standalone product, a digital platform that could help energy storage businesses make decisions on when to charge their systems and when to sell their power. We have begun developing this platform and we intend to continue this exploration. Even after we spend time and resources to develop such a digital platform and to explore the market potential for such a digital platform, there is no assurance that we will develop a product that can be sold on terms that are commercially acceptable to us. Moreover, even if we develop the digital platform and enter into sales agreements for it, these agreements may not be as beneficial to us as we expected at the time of entering into the underlying agreement. Any of the foregoing may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results or operations and prospects.
We intend to explore alternative, co-active use case opportunities for our systems, but there is no assurance that such opportunities exist or that they would be as beneficial to us as we expect.
We intend to explore alternative, co-active use case opportunities for our EVx systems. For example, we intend to explore opportunities in energy-intensive industries such as vertical farming, data centers, crypto mining, direct air carbon capture where our systems may be able to benefit from existing infrastructure, including physical enclosures and electrical systems, that are built into the designs for our EVx and EVRC systems. Even after we spend time and resources exploring such opportunities, there is no assurance that they exist on terms that are commercially acceptable to us. Moreover, even if we enter into agreements to make use of such opportunities, such opportunities may not be as beneficial to us as we expected at the time of entering into the underlying agreement. Any of the foregoing may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results or operations and prospects.
Insufficient warranty reserves to cover future warranty claims could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Once our EVx systems and EVRCs are in production, we will need to maintain warranty reserves to cover warranty-related claims. If the warranty reserves are inadequate to cover future warranty claims on our EVx systems or our EVRCs or any digital platform that we may develop, our business, prospects, financial
 
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condition and operating results could be materially adversely affected. We may become subject to significant and unexpected warranty expenses. There can be no assurances that then-existing warranty reserves will be sufficient to cover all claims.
The implementation of our business plan and strategy may require additional capital. If we are then unable to achieve sufficient sales to generate that capital or otherwise raise capital, it may create substantial doubt about our ability to pursue our business objectives and achieve profitability or to continue as a going concern. If adequate capital is not available to us, including due to the cost and availability of funding in the capital markets, our business, operating results and financial condition may be harmed.
The development, design, manufacture and sale of our energy storage systems is a capital-intensive business. As a result, we can be expected to continue to incur substantial operating expenses without generating sufficient revenues to cover expenditures. Over time, we may need to raise additional funds, including through entry into new joint venture arrangements, through the issuance of equity, equity-linked or debt securities or through obtaining credit from financial institutions to fund, together with our principal sources of liquidity, ongoing costs such as research and development relating to our products and technologies, the construction and tooling of prototypes, the implementation of our systems for our future customers, any significant unplanned or accelerated expenses, and new strategic investments. We cannot be certain that additional capital will be available on attractive terms, if at all, when needed, which could be dilutive to stockholders, and our financial condition, results of operations, business and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
While we have outstanding Warrants that may provide an additional source of cash, there is no assurance that holders of Warrants will exercise all or any of their Warrants for cash. The exercise price of our Public Warrants and our Private Warrants is $11.50 per share, subject to certain specified adjustments. To the extent that the price of our Common Stock exceeds $11.50 per share, it is more likely that warrantholders will exercise their warrants. To the extent that the price of our common stock is less than $11.50 per share, it is less likely that warrantholders will exercise their Warrants.
If adequate capital is not available to us, whether through the exercise of Warrants or otherwise, it may create substantial doubt among third parties, including suppliers and potential customers, about our ability to pursue our objectives, to achieve profitability or to continue as a going concern. Such doubt could materially and adversely impact our business, reputation and prospects.
Our energy storage systems involve a lengthy sales and installation cycle, and if we fail to close sales on a regular and timely basis it could harm our business. Moreover, the long sales cycles for our energy storage systems may cause us to incur significant expenses without offsetting revenues
Although we have not yet completed any full cycle from sale to installation of our energy storage systems, we expect them to be lengthy. In order to make a sale, we must typically provide a significant level of education to prospective customers regarding the use and benefits of our product and our technology. The period between initial discussions with a potential customer and the sale of even a single product typically depends on a number of factors, including the potential customer’s attitude towards innovative products, their budget and decision as to the type of financing it chooses to use, as well as the arrangement of such financing. Prospective customers often undertake a significant evaluation process, which may further extend the sales cycle. Once a customer makes a formal decision to purchase our product, the fulfillment of the sales order by us requires a substantial amount of time. Currently, we believe the time between the entry into a sales contract with a customer and the installation of our EVx systems or an EVRC could range from 18 to 36 months or more. This lengthy sales and installation cycle is subject to a number of significant risks over which we have little or no control. Because of both the long sales and installation cycles, we may expend significant resources without having certainty of generating a sale.
These lengthy sales and installation cycles increase the risk that our customers fail to satisfy their payment obligations or cancel orders before the completion of the transaction or delay the planned date for installation. Generally, a customer can cancel an order prior to installation, and, notwithstanding the fact that a customer’s termination for convenience will obligate the customer to pay us certain fees, we may be unable to recover some of our costs in connection with design, permitting, installation and site preparations incurred prior to cancellation. Cancellation rates in our industry could increase in any given period, due to
 
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factors outside of our control including an inability to install an EVx system at the customer’s chosen location because of permitting or other issues, unanticipated changes in the cost or availability of alternative sources of electricity available to the customer, or other reasons unique to each customer. Our operating expenses are based on anticipated sales levels, and certain of our expenses are fixed. If we are unsuccessful in closing sales after expending significant resources or if we experience delays or cancellations, our business could be materially and adversely affected.
Moreover, our customers typically expend significant effort in evaluating, testing and qualifying our products before making a decision to purchase them, resulting in a lengthy initial sales cycle. While our customers are evaluating our products we have incurred, and expect to continue to incur, substantial sales, marketing and research and development expenses to customize our products to the customer’s needs. During an initial sales cycle, we may also expend significant management efforts and order long-lead-time components or materials. Even after this evaluation process, a potential customer may not purchase our products. As a result, these long sales cycles may cause us to incur significant expenses without ever receiving revenue to offset those expenses.
Because of the long sales cycles and the expected limited number of customers for our energy storage systems, our operating results will likely fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter.
We expect that long sales cycles and the expected limited number of customers for our energy storage systems is likely to cause fluctuations in our operating results from quarter to quarter. In light of the standards under which we expect to recognize revenue, small fluctuations in the timing of the completion of our sales transactions could also cause operating results to vary materially from period to period. In addition, our financial condition and results of operations may fluctuate in the future due to a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. For example, the amount of revenue we recognize in a given period is expected to be materially dependent on the volume and scale of purchases of our EVx systems and our customers’ preferences for choosing to purchase the system or purchase the energy storage and dispatch of electricity from systems we build and in which we retain an ownership interest.
In addition to the other risks described herein, the following factors could also cause our financial condition and results of operations to fluctuate on a quarterly basis:

fluctuations in costs associated with the first group of EVx systems that we deploy;

the timing of customer installations of our EVx systems, which may depend on many factors such as availability of inventory, product quality or performance issues, or local permitting requirements, utility requirements, environmental, health and safety requirements, weather and customer facility construction schedules, availability and schedule of our third-party general contractors;

size of particular customer installations and number of sites involved in any particular quarter;

delays or cancellations of purchases and installations;

fluctuations in our service costs;

weaker than anticipated demand for our energy storage systems due to changes in government regulation, incentives and policies;

interruptions in our supply chain;

the timing and level of additional purchases by existing customers;

unanticipated expenses incurred due to changes in governmental regulations, permitting requirements by local authorities at particular sites, utility requirements and environmental, health and safety requirements;

disruptions in our sales, production, service or other business activities resulting from our inability to attract and retain qualified personnel;

shortage of raw materials from our suppliers and associated price increases due to fluctuations in commodities prices; and

availability of spare parts from our suppliers.
 
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In addition, our revenue, key operating metrics and other operating results in future quarters may fall short of the expectations of investors and financial analysts, which could have an adverse effect on the price of our Common Stock and/or our Public Warrants.
There is no assurance that we will be able to execute on our business model, including achieving market acceptance of our planned products or identifying potential customers.
Investors should be aware of the difficulties normally encountered by a new enterprise, many of which are beyond our control, including substantial risks and expenses in the course of establishing or entering new markets, developing and commercializing new products and technologies, organizing operations and undertaking marketing activities. The likelihood of our success must be considered in light of these risks, expenses, complications, delays and the competitive environment in which we operate. There is, therefore, nothing at this time upon which to base an assumption that our business plan will prove successful, and we may not be able to generate significant revenue, raise additional capital or operate profitably. We will continue to encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by pre-commercial and early commercial stage companies, including scaling up our infrastructure and headcount, and may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties or delays in connection with our growth. Any investment in our company is therefore highly speculative and could result in the loss of your entire investment.
The size of our energy storage systems may negatively impact our ability to enter into contracts with customers or obtain government permits and approvals.
Our EVx systems require a considerably larger space for their deployment than comparable systems based on certain technologies such as lithium-ion technology, and this can result in a significant delay in the permitting process. In addition, the size of our EVx systems may represent an impediment for the deployment of our EVx systems in denser areas or areas with restrictions on the height of buildings. And, in light of the size of our systems, we require hard soil or the ability to get to bedrock in order to deploy our systems. These factors may negatively impact our ability to enter into customer contracts or obtain government permits and approvals, each of which may materially affect our business.
Our business is subject to risks associated with construction, cost overruns and delays, including those related to obtaining government permits and approvals, electrical interconnection, and other contingencies that may arise in the course of completing installations.
Our business is subject to risks relating to construction, cost overruns and delays. The installation and operation of our energy storage systems at a particular site is generally subject to oversight and regulation in accordance with national, state and local laws and ordinances relating to building codes, safety, environmental protection, FERC and specific Independent System Operators regulation and related matters, and typically requires obtaining and keeping in good standing various local and other governmental approvals and permits, including environmental approvals and permits, that vary by jurisdiction. In some cases, these approvals and permits require periodic renewal. It is difficult and costly to track the requirements of every individual authority having jurisdiction over energy storage system installations, to design our energy storage systems to comply with these varying standards, which may change over time, and for customers to obtain all applicable approvals and permits. We cannot predict whether or when all permits required for a given customer’s project will be granted or whether the conditions associated with the permits will be achievable. The denial of a permit or utility connection essential to a project or the imposition of impractical conditions would impair our customer’s ability to develop the project. In addition, we cannot predict whether the permitting process will be lengthened due to complexities and appeals. Delay in the review and permitting process for a project can impair or delay our customers’ abilities to develop that project or increase the cost so substantially that the project is no longer attractive to our customers. Furthermore, unforeseen delays in the review and permitting process could delay the timing of the installation of our energy storage systems and could therefore adversely affect the timing of the recognition of revenue related to hardware acceptance by our customer, which could adversely affect our operating results in a particular period. Delays relating to constructions may also bring about cost overruns, which could further adversely affect our business.
In addition, the successful installation of our energy storage systems is dependent upon the availability of and timely connection to the local electric grid. Before beginning construction on an EVx system, we may
 
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be unable to obtain in a timely fashion or at all the required consent and authorization of local utilities to ensure successful interconnection to energy grids to enable the successful discharge of renewable energy to customers. Any delays in our customers’ ability to connect with utilities, delays in the performance of installation-related services or poor performance of installation-related services will have an adverse effect on our results and could cause operating results to vary materially from period to period.
The failure or inability of our suppliers to deliver necessary components or raw materials for construction of our energy storage systems in a timely manner could cause installation delays, cancellations, penalty payments and damage to our reputation.
We rely on a limited number of third-party suppliers for some of the raw materials and components for our EVx systems, including steel, cement, polymers and, in certain cases, coal ash waste and retired wind turbine blades, and other materials that may be of limited supply. If any of our suppliers provide insufficient inventory at the level of quality required or if our suppliers are unable or unwilling to provide us with the contracted quantities (as we have limited or in some case no alternatives for supply), our results of operations could be materially and negatively impacted. If we fail to develop or maintain our relationships with any of our suppliers, or if there is otherwise a shortage or lack of availability of any required raw materials or components, we may be unable to manufacture our EVx systems or EVRCs or such products may be available only at a higher cost or after a long delay. For example, there has recently been a shortage of microchips, which has affected certain manufacturers, and if such shortage continues, our business could be affected as our products incorporate microchips. Current or future supply chain interruptions that could be exacerbated by global political tensions, such as the situation in Ukraine, could negatively impact our ability to acquire such microchips. Such delays could prevent us from delivering our EVx systems or our EVRCs to customers within required time frames and cause order cancellations. These activities are time and capital intensive. Accordingly, the number of suppliers we have for some of our components and materials is limited and, in some cases, sole sourced. We may be unable to obtain comparable components from alternative suppliers without considerable delay, expense, or at all. If our suppliers face difficulties obtaining the credit or capital necessary to expand their operations when needed, they could be unable to supply necessary raw materials and components needed to support our planned sales and services operations, which would negatively impact our sales volumes and cash flows.
Moreover, we have in the past and may in the future experience unanticipated disruptions to operations or other difficulties with our supply chain or internalized supply processes due to exchange rate fluctuations, volatility in regional markets from where materials are obtained, changes in the general macroeconomic outlook, global trade disputes, political instability, expropriation or nationalization of property, public health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic, civil strife, strikes, insurrections, acts of terrorism, acts of war, or natural disasters. The failure by us to obtain raw materials or components in a timely manner or to obtain raw materials or components that meet our quantity and cost requirements could impair our ability to manufacture our products or increase their costs or the associated service costs of under maintenance services agreements, if any are entered into. If we cannot obtain substitute materials or components on a timely basis or on acceptable terms, we could be prevented from delivering our EVx systems to customers within required time frames, which could result in sales and installation delays, cancellations, penalty payments, or damage to our reputation, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. In addition, we rely on our suppliers to meet quality standards, and the failure of our suppliers to meet or exceed those quality standards could cause delays in the delivery of our products, cause unanticipated servicing costs, and cause damage to our reputation.
Our future growth is dependent upon the pace and depth of renewable energy adoption and energy storage technologies, which are emerging industries, as well as our competition. If the markets for renewable energy and energy storage do not develop as we expect, or if they develop more slowly than we expect, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
Our future growth depends upon factors in our industry, including with respect to our competition, the speed at which the market adopts renewable energy, our ability to penetrate such market and the state of energy storage technologies. Because renewable energy and energy storage are emerging industries, they are evolving and characterized by rapidly changing technologies, changing government regulation and industry standards and changing consumer demands and behaviors. If the markets for these do not develop as we
 
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expect, including if they develop more slowly than we expect, demand for our EVx systems, our EVRCs or any digital platform that we may develop, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
Additionally, the energy storage market is largely driven by installed capacity of renewable electricity generation and increasing demand for renewable sources of power. Since many of these renewable sources of power are intermittent, like wind and solar, the energy produced by them must be stored for use when there is demand. Should government requirements for these intermittent power sources be relaxed or social desires for lower-carbon sources of energy decline, there could be a detrimental impact on one of our primary markets.
Even if renewable energy and energy storage become more widely adopted, our gravity energy storage technology may not achieve widespread market acceptance or may be less cost-effective as compared to competing technologies.
Our business depends on the acceptance of our products, including the EVx systems, in the marketplace. Even if renewable energy and energy storage become more widely adopted than they have been to date, potential customers may choose energy storage products from our competitors that are based on technologies other than gravity energy storage, for example, lithium-ion battery technology. If they do so, it may be difficult to later transition such potential customers to products offered by us. Moreover, the marketplace for renewable energy storage products is rapidly evolving, and competing technologies of which we are currently unaware may emerge in the future. If the gravity energy storage technology that supports our products, including the EVx systems, does not achieve market acceptance then our business and results of operations would be materially adversely affected.
The growth and profitability of our business is dependent upon our technology being more cost-effective than competing energy storage technologies. For example, over the last decade, the cost of battery storage systems, particularly lithium-ion based battery storage systems, has declined significantly. If the cost of competing technologies, including battery storage systems, declines sufficiently, our gravity energy storage technology system may be less cost-effective for potential customers, which would decrease the demand for our products. Such a decrease in demand would materially adversely affect our business, prospects and results of operations.
If we are not able to reduce our cost structure in the future, our ability to become profitable may be impaired.
Over time, we must effectively manage the manufacturing costs for our EVx systems to expand our market. While we have sought, and will continue to seek, to manage our manufacturing and services costs, the cost of components and raw materials, for example, could increase in the future. Any such increases could slow our growth and cause our financial results and operational metrics to suffer. In addition, we may face increases in our other expenses, including increases in wages or other labor costs, as well as installation, marketing, sales or related costs. We may continue to make significant investments to drive growth in the future. To the extent that the price of electricity from the grid is low in certain markets, we will need to continue to reduce our costs to maintain our expected margins in those markets. Increases in any of these costs or our failure to achieve projected cost reductions could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition and harm our business and prospects. If we are unable to reduce our cost structure sufficiently in the future, we may not be able to achieve profitability, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and prospects.
We have experienced rapid internal growth and expect to invest in our growth for the foreseeable future. If we fail to manage our growth effectively, our business and operating results may suffer.
In recent periods, our internal operations have grown in terms of complexity and the number of our employees, and we intend to continue such investment for the foreseeable future. The growth and expansion of our business has placed and continues to place a strain on management, operations, financial infrastructure and corporate culture. In the event of further growth, our information technology systems and our internal control over financial reporting and procedures may not be adequate to support our operations and may introduce opportunities for data security incidents that may interrupt business operations
 
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and permit bad actors to obtain unauthorized access to business information or misappropriate funds. We may also face risks to the extent such bad actors infiltrate the information technology infrastructure of our contractors.
To manage growth in operations and personnel, we will need to continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls and reporting systems and procedures. Failure to manage growth effectively could result in difficulty or delays in attracting customers, declines in quality or customer satisfaction, increases in costs, difficulties in introducing new products and services or enhancing existing products and services, loss of customers, information security vulnerabilities or other operational difficulties, any of which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
If we are unable to attract and retain key employees and hire qualified management, technical, engineering, and sales personnel, including a highly skilled and diverse management team with experience in the energy storage sectors, our ability to compete and successfully grow our business could be harmed.
We believe that our success and our ability to reach our strategic objectives are highly dependent on the contributions of our key management, technical, engineering and sales personnel. The loss of the services of any of our key employees could disrupt our operations, delay the development and introduction of our products and services, including with respect to our prototype products, and negatively impact our business, prospects and operating results. In particular, we are highly dependent on the services of Robert Piconi, our Chief Executive Officer, Marco Terruzzin, our Chief Product Officer and Andrea Pedretti our Chief Technology Officer. None of our key employees is bound by an employment agreement for any specific term. We cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully attract and retain senior leadership necessary to grow our business. Furthermore, there is increasing competition for talented individuals in our field, and competition for qualified personnel is especially intense in the renewable energy and energy storage industry in the USA and Switzerland, where, collectively, our primary offices are located. Our failure to attract and retain our executive officers and other key technology, sales, marketing and support personnel, could adversely impact our business, prospects, financial condition, and operating results. In addition, we do not have “key person” life insurance policies covering any of our officers or other key employees.
We believe that it is vital to our operating success that we recruit and retain key personnel, including a highly skilled and diverse management team with experience in the renewable energy and energy storage sectors. If we fail to maintain a highly skilled and diverse management team, we may not be able to achieve our strategic objectives, which would negatively impact our business and operating success. In addition, because our industry is still in a nascent stage, there is and will continue to be a scarcity of skilled personnel with experience in our industry. If we lose a member of our management team or key employee, it may prove difficult for us to replace him or her with a similarly qualified individual with experience in the renewable energy and energy storage industry, which could impact our business and operating success.
Our EVx systems have significant upfront costs, and our customers may need to obtain financing to help finance purchases. If our customers are unable to procure third-party financing or if the cost of such financing exceeds our estimates, our business would be adversely affected.
Our EVx systems have significant upfront costs, and certain customers may need, or may prefer to acquire, third-party financing to purchase our systems.
Therefore, our growth, including the deployment of our EVx systems, may to an extent depend on our customers’ ability to attract third-party financing partners. Their ability to attract third-party financing depends on many factors that are outside of our control, including the ability of third parties to utilize tax credits and other government incentives, interest rate and/or currency exchange fluctuations, their perceived creditworthiness and the condition of credit markets generally. We expect that the financing of customer purchases of our EVx systems will be subject to customary conditions such as the customer’s credit quality, and if these conditions are not satisfied, such customers may be unable to finance purchases of our EVx systems, which would have an adverse effect on our revenue in a particular period. To the extent our customers are unable to arrange future financings for any of our current or potential projects, our business would be negatively impacted.
 
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In attempting to attract new customers to support our growth, we intend to refine our customer agreements based on experience. Moreover, new types of product offerings may require our customers to find partners willing to finance these new projects, which may have different terms and financing conditions from prior transactions. If the terms of these transactions or the structure of these projects fails to attract financiers, we may not be able to proceed with growing our business and our potential for growth may be limited. Additionally, financing options are also limited by the customer’s willingness to commit to making fixed payments regardless of the performance of the EVx systems or our performance of our obligations under the customer agreement
Further, our sales process for transactions that require financing require that we and our customers make certain assumptions regarding the cost of financing capital. If the cost of financing ultimately exceeds our estimates, we may be unable to proceed with some or all of the impacted projects or our revenue from such projects may be less than our estimates. Actual financing costs for potential customers may vary from our estimates due to factors outside of our control, including changes in customer creditworthiness, macroeconomic factors, the returns offered by other investment opportunities available to our financing partners, and other factors.
If our customers are unable to procure financing partners willing to finance deployments of our products or if the cost of such financing exceeds our estimates, our business would be negatively impacted.
We face additional risks to the extent that customers choose to purchase energy storage and dispatch of electricity from systems we build and in which retain an ownership interest rather than purchase an energy storage system.
We expect to offer our customers a choice of two programs. Under the first program, Storage Asset Owners, the customer owns both the energy storage system and the service the system provides (the energy storage and dispatch of electricity). We anticipate that this program will constitute the substantial majority of future sales. Under the second program, Storage Service Customers program, customers purchase the energy storage and dispatch of electricity from us while we retain an ownership interest in the system, together with financing partners.
We could face additional risks under the Storage Service Customers program that we would not otherwise face under our Storage Asset Owners program. For example, we would need to seek equity and/or debt financing to fund the construction and operation of any energy systems built in connection with a project for a customer who chooses the Storage Service Customers program. Such financing may not be available on terms acceptable to us, if at all. Moreover, we expect that any such indebtedness would be secured by a lien on the related energy storage system, and the governing debt agreement may contain covenants imposing operating and financial restrictions on our operations. In addition, until any such debt is repaid, we may not be able to generate meaningful cash flow from the project. Moreover, the failure of our customers to make payments could trigger an event of default under such governing debt agreements, which could result in the acceleration of repayment of our outstanding indebtedness or even entitle our lender to foreclose on the collateral securing our debt. In addition, to the extent equity financing is also used, our right to receive cash flows from the project could be subordinated to the other equity investors.
Additionally, there could be a material adverse effect on our operating results and our cash flows to the extent we own and operate our energy storage systems for the benefit of customers who choose the Storage Services Customers program. For example, we would not expect to receive any payments from the customer until the system is completed and expenses relating to insurance premiums, personnel and our interest payments under debt agreements would be increased, and such increases may be material. We could also be required to provide ongoing maintenance and repair services or could face liability for any damages or injuries if the system malfunctions. Additionally, we would be subject to the risks of termination of the agreement by the customer and the inability to replace the customer would result in the system failing to generate revenue. We may also incur liabilities as a result of a performance failure or other breach of our obligations in connection with the operation of the system
We may also be subject to additional legal and regulatory restrictions to the extent we own and operate an energy storage system, including relating to the transmission of energy. Such legal and regulatory
 
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restrictions could increase the costs of compliance and potentially subject us to threatened or actual litigation or administrative proceedings, each of which could have a material adverse affect on our business, operating results and financial condition.
Although we expect the significant majority of the revenue from our two programs to be from the Storage Asset Owners program based on our current outlook, there is no assurance that the Storage Services Customers program will not account for a significant portion of our business.
Our operations are international, and expanding operations in some international markets could expose us to additional risks.
Our operations are international, and we continue to expand our business internationally as we seek to partner with customers, suppliers and other partners around the world. We currently have operations relating to the EV1 in Switzerland, and our signed purchase order and letters of intent are with counterparties around the world. Managing further international expansion will require additional resources and controls including additional manufacturing and assembly facilities. Any expansion internationally could subject our business to risks associated with international operations, including:

conformity with applicable business customs, including translation into foreign languages and associated expenses;

lack of availability of government incentives and subsidies;

challenges in arranging, and availability of, financing for our customers;

potential changes to our established business model;

cost of alternative power sources, which could be meaningfully lower outside the United States;

availability and cost of raw materials, labor, equipment for manufacturing or assembling our EVx systems;

difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations in an environment of diverse culture, laws, and customers, and the increased travel, infrastructure, and legal and compliance costs associated with international operations;

installation challenges which we have not encountered before which may require the development of a unique model for each country;

compliance with multiple, potentially conflicting and changing governmental laws, regulations, and permitting processes including construction, environmental, banking, employment, tax, privacy, safety, security, grid minimum performances, and data protection laws and regulations;

compliance with U.S. and foreign anti-bribery laws including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the U.K. Anti-Bribery Act;

greater difficulties in securing or enforcing our intellectual property rights in certain jurisdictions, or in potential infringement of third-party intellectual property rights in new jurisdictions;

difficulties in collecting payments in foreign currencies and associated foreign currency exposure;

restrictions on repatriation of earnings;

compliance with potentially conflicting and changing laws of taxing jurisdictions where we conduct business and compliance with applicable U.S. tax laws as they relate to international operations, the complexity and adverse consequences of such tax laws, and potentially adverse tax consequences due to changes in such tax laws;

increases or decreases in our expenses caused by fluctuation in foreign currency exchange rates;

changes in import tariffs imposed by local governments;

changes in regulations regarding the use of waste materials in our products;

changes in regulations that would prevent us from doing business in specified countries;
 
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failure of the supply chain in local countries to provide us with materials of a sufficient quality and quantity delivered on timelines we expect;

the outbreak of war or other hostilities; and

regional economic and political conditions.
As a result of these risks, any potential future international expansion efforts that we may undertake may not be successful.
In addition, nearly all of our letters of intent are denominated in U.S. dollars, and certain of our definitive agreements could be denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, including the euro, the Australian dollar, the Brazilian real and the Saudi riyal. A strengthening of the U.S. dollar could increase the cost of our solutions to our international customers, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations. In addition, an increasing portion of our operating expenses is incurred outside the United States, is denominated in foreign currencies, such as the euro and the Swiss franc, and is subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. If we become more exposed to currency fluctuations and are not able to successfully hedge against the risks associated with currency fluctuations, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our projections are subject to significant risks, assumptions, estimates and uncertainties. As a result, our projected revenues, market share, expenses and profitability may differ materially from our expectations.
Our projections are subject to significant risks, assumptions, estimates and uncertainties. Such projections reflect our current views with respect to future events or our future financial performance, are based on assumptions, and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by our projections. We may not actually achieve the plans, expectations or objectives contained in our projections, and the underlying assumptions may prove incorrect. Such deviations may be due to factors outside our control or currently unknown to us. For example, our actual revenues, market share, timing for achieving business milestones, expenses and profitability may differ materially from our expectations. Therefore, undue reliance should not be placed on any of our projections.
For example, in October 2021, we entered into the DG Fuels Agreement, which has the potential to generate up to $520 million in revenue across three projects, the first of which is expected to commence in mid-2022. The timing of the commencement of and payments under each project is subject to the execution of a sales agreement relating to such project and the revenue from each project will be dependent upon the agreed upon size of the project, and the timing of such project and the performance of DG Fuels. The receipt and timing of any revenue recognition and payments from the DG Fuels Agreement will be subject to the timing and execution of sales agreements and the performance by our counterparty under any such sales agreement for our energy storage systems. Any event or circumstance that delays or impairs our or our counterparty’s performance could materially adversely affect the amount or timing of revenue generated under the DG Fuels Agreement, and such revenue, if any, may be materially less than what we expect. There can be no assurance that sales agreements will be executed with respect to any of the projects, that any of such projects are completed, or that we will generate all $520 million of revenue, or any meaningful part thereof, under the DG Fuels Agreement or on the timeline we expect.
Certain estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth may prove to be inaccurate.
This prospectus includes estimates of the addressable market for Energy Vault’s solutions, including our gravity-based energy storage systems and a digital platform that are in the early stages of developing, and the renewable energy and energy storage market in general. Market opportunity estimates and growth forecasts, whether obtained from third-party sources or development internally, are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates that may prove to be inaccurate. This is in part true at the present time due to the uncertain and rapidly changing projections of the severity, magnitude and duration of the current coronavirus, or COVID-19, pandemic. The estimates and forecasts in this prospectus relating to the size and expected growth of the target market, market demand and adoption, capacity to address this demand and pricing may also prove to be inaccurate. In particular, estimates regarding the current
 
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and projected market opportunity are difficult to predict, especially in light of the nascent stage of our industry. The estimated addressable market may not materialize for many years, and even if the markets meet the size estimates and growth forecasted in this prospectus, our business could fail to capture a meaningful share of the market or grow at similar rates.
Operational costs can be difficult to predict and may include costs from requirements related to the decommissioning of our systems.
We will rely heavily on complex machinery for our operations and our production will involve a significant degree of uncertainty and risk in terms of operational performance and costs. Our EVx systems will consist of large-scale machinery comprised of many components assembled on-site for our customers. The components of our EVx systems are likely to suffer unexpected malfunctions from time to time and will depend on repairs and spare parts to resume operations, which may not be available when needed. Unexpected malfunctions of our EVx systems or their constituent components may significantly affect the intended operational efficiency and performance. In addition, our EVx systems may need to be decommissioned from time to time, and the related costs could be significant given the expected size and complexity of our EVx systems. Operational performance and costs, including those related to project stoppage, can be difficult to predict and are often influenced by factors outside of our control, such as, but not limited to, scarcity of natural resources, environmental hazards and remediation, costs associated with construction, commissioning, testing or decommissioning of machines, labor disputes and strikes, difficulty or delays in obtaining governmental permits, damages or defects in electronic systems, industrial accidents, fire, seismic activity and natural disasters. Should operational risks materialize, it may result in the personal injury to or death of workers, the loss of production equipment, damage to manufacturing facilities, monetary losses, delays and unanticipated fluctuations in production, environmental damage, administrative fines, increased insurance costs and potential legal liabilities, all which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition or prospects.
There is no assurance that non-binding letters of intent and other indications of interest will result in binding orders or sales. Customers may cancel or delay the non-binding letters of intent and other indications of interest in our sales pipeline. As a result, our operating results and cash flows may be materially lower than our expected results of operations.
Our success depends on our ability to generate revenue and operate profitably, which depends in part on our ability to identify target customers and convert such contacts into meaningful orders or expand on current customer relationships. As of this date, we do not have any definitive sales agreements in place although we have the DG Fuels Agreement (described below), the non-binding strategic partnership agreement with Sun Metals and certain detailed letters of intent that contemplate sales agreements. Potential customers may abandon their indications of interest, and non-binding letters of interest may be cancelled or delayed by a customer for any reason or its terms may be amended in an manner adverse to us in connection with negotiating a definitive sales agreement. For that reason, there can be no assurance that any current or future indications of interest or non-binding letters of intent will result in binding orders or sales. Furthermore, in light of our limited operating history, it is difficult for us to predict the rates at which the non-binding letters of interest in our pipeline will result in binding orders or sales. It is also difficult for us to predict how quickly we will be able to fill binding orders in the event that we obtain multiple orders. In addition, revenue is expected to be recognized in stages, and customers may in some cases delay actual cash payments regardless of progressive billings. Additionally, a customer’s ability to make payments could decline during the sales process, even to the point of insolvency or bankruptcy. As a result, our operating results and cash flow may be materially lower than we expect.
We have also entered into a commercial agreement with DG Fuels LLC, or the DG Fuels Agreement, which contemplates the execution of more definitive sales agreements for the proposed projects. The timing of projects and payments under the DG Fuels Agreement depends on the timing for signing the sales agreements, and potential delays in signing such agreements would result in reduced revenue and profitability under the sales agreements and would have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and cash flow, which could be material.
 
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Fuel prices, including volatility in the cost of diesel or natural gas or a prolonged period of low gasoline and natural gas costs, could decrease incentives to transition to renewable energy.
A portion of the current and expected demand for renewable energy results from concerns about volatility in the cost of gasoline and other petroleum-based fuel, the dependency of the United States on oil from unstable or hostile countries, government regulations and economic incentives promoting fuel efficiency and alternative forms of energy, as well as concerns about climate change resulting in part from the burning of fossil fuels. If the cost of gasoline and other petroleum-based fuel decreases significantly, the outlook for the long-term supply of oil to the United States improves, the government eliminates or modifies its regulations or economic incentives related to fuel efficiency and alternative forms of energy or there is a change in the perception in the cost-benefit analysis regarding the effects of burning fossil fuels on the environment, the demand for renewable energy, including energy storage products such as ours, could be reduced, and our business and revenue may be harmed.
Diesel, gasoline, natural gas and other petroleum-based fuel prices have historically been extremely volatile, particularly during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, and it is difficult to ascertain whether such volatility will continue to persist. Lower gasoline and natural gas costs over extended periods of time may lower the perception in government and the private sector that cheaper, more readily available energy alternatives, such as wind and solar, should be developed and produced. If gasoline or other petroleum-based fuel prices remain at deflated levels for extended periods of time, the demand for renewable energy may decrease notwithstanding incentives to transition to renewable energy, which would have an adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
The economic benefit of our energy storage systems to our customers depends on the cost of electricity available from alternative sources, including local electric utility companies, which cost structure is subject to change.
The economic benefit of our energy storage systems to our customers includes, among other things, the benefit of reducing such customer’s payments to the local electric utility company. The rates at which electricity is available from a customer’s local electric utility company is subject to change and any changes in such rates may affect the relative benefits of our energy storage systems. Further, the local electric utility may impose “departing load,” “standby” or other charges on our customers in connection with their acquisition of our energy storage systems, the amounts of which are outside of our control and which may have a material impact on the economic benefit of our energy storage systems to our customers. Changes in the rates offered by local electric utilities and/or in the applicability or amounts of charges and other fees imposed by such utilities on customers acquiring our energy storage systems could adversely affect the demand for our energy storage systems.
Additionally, the electricity stored and released by our systems may not currently be cost-competitive in some geographic markets, and we may be unable to reduce our costs to a level at which our energy storage systems would be competitive in such markets. As such, unless the cost of electricity in these markets rises or we are able to generate demand for our energy storage systems based on benefits other than electricity cost savings, our potential for growth may be limited.
We operate in highly competitive energy industries and there is increasing competition. Many of our competitors and future competitors may have significantly more financial and other resources than we do and if we do not compete effectively, our competitive positioning and our operating results will be harmed.
The energy markets in which we intend to compete continue to evolve and are highly competitive. Many of our current and potential competitors are large entities at a more advanced stage in development and commercialization than we are and in some cases have significantly more financial and other resources, including larger numbers of managerial and technical personnel, to increase their market share. For example, several companies, such as ESS Inc., Eos Energy Enterprises Inc., Hydrostor Inc. and Primus Power, have each announced plans and demonstrated prototypes of products that would compete in the energy storage market, and battery vendors with whom we compete, such as Tesla, Inc., Fluence Energy, Inc., LG Chem, Ltd., Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd and Contemporary Amperex Technology Co. Limited, have already commercialized their respective energy storage solution products. Companies such as Tesla, Inc., Fluence Energy, Inc. and Wartsila Corporation are also developing their own energy management
 
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software. If our competitors continue to penetrate the renewable energy, energy storage and energy management software markets, we may experience a reduction in potential and actual market share. To date, we have focused our efforts on recruiting management and other employees, business planning, raising capital, selecting applicable third party technologies, establishing and attempting to establish partnerships with potential suppliers, customers and ecosystem partners, developing the EV1 and EVx systems and a digital platform, and general corporate development.
We expect competition in energy storage technology to intensify due to a regulatory push for lower-carbon energy sources, including intermittent sources such as wind and solar, continuing globalization, and consolidation in the energy industry. Developments in alternative technologies or improvements in energy storage technology made by competitors may materially adversely affect the sales, pricing and gross margins of our future EVx systems and any digital platform. If a competing process or technology is developed that has superior operational or price performance, our business would be harmed.
Furthermore, our gravity based energy storage technology also competes with other emerging or evolving technologies, such as thermal storage, chemical storage, hydrogen energy storage and carbon capture storage and sequestration. If we are unable to keep up with competitive developments, including if such technologies achieve lower prices or enjoy greater policy support than our technology, our competitive position and growth prospects may be harmed, which would adversely affect our business, prospects and financial condition.
Some of our current and potential competitors have longer operating histories and greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources than we do. These factors may allow our competitors to respond more quickly or efficiently than we can to new or emerging technologies. These competitors may engage in more extensive research and development efforts, undertake more far-reaching marketing campaigns and adopt more aggressive pricing policies, which may allow them to more effectively compete for new energy storage projects and energy management software customers.
We intend to continue committing significant resources to establish a competitive position. There is no assurance we will successfully identify the right partners or produce and bring our EVx systems and a digital platform to market on a timely basis, if at all, or that products and technologies developed by others will not render our EVx systems and any digital platform that we may develop obsolete or noncompetitive, any of which would adversely affect our business, prospects and operating results.
Our future growth depends upon our ability to maintain relationships with third parties, and the terms and enforceability of many of these relationships are not certain.
We expect to rely on engineering, procurement, construction, or EPC, firms as third-party general contractors to install energy storage systems at our customers’ sites. We are likely to work with a limited number of such EPC firms, which may impact our ability to facilitate customer installations as planned. Our work with contractors or their sub-contractors may have the effect of our being required to comply with additional rules (including rules unique to our customers), working conditions, site remediation and other union requirements, which can add costs and complexity to an installation project. In the future, the timeliness, thoroughness and quality of installation-related services performed by our general contractors and their
sub-contractors may not meet our expectations and standards and it may be difficult to find and train third-party general contractors that meet our standards at a competitive cost.
In addition, a key component of our growth strategy is to develop or expand our relationships with third parties. For example, we are investing resources in establishing strategic relationships with market players across a variety of industries, including, large renewable project developers, commercial agents, environmental organizations and unions, to generate new customers or to grow our business. These programs may not roll out as quickly as planned or produce the results we anticipated. A significant portion of our business depends on attracting new partners and retaining existing partners, and such relationships may not be predicated on enforceable agreements or any agreements at all.
Any failure to offer high-quality technical support services may adversely affect our relationships with our customers and adversely affect our financial results.
Although we do not have definitive customer agreements in place, we expect that potential and actual customers will depend on our support organization to resolve any technical issues relating to the hardware
 
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and software included in our systems. In addition, our sales process is likely to depend highly on the quality of our hardware and software-enabled services, on our business reputation and on strong recommendations from our existing customers. Any failure to maintain high-quality and highly-responsive technical support, or a market perception that we do not maintain high-quality and highly-responsive support, could adversely affect our reputation, our ability to sell our products to existing and prospective customers, and our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We intend to offer technical support services alongside our systems. We intend to have a designated team of engineers to support our customers, and they may be unable to respond quickly enough to accommodate short-term increases in demand for support services, particularly as we increase the size of our customer base. We also may be unable to modify the format of our support services to compete with changes in support services provided by competitors. At our current stage, it is difficult to predict demand for technical support services and if demand were to increase significantly beyond our expectations, we may be unable to provide satisfactory support services to our customers. Additionally, increased demand for these services, without corresponding revenue, could increase costs and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our systems rely on interconnections to distribution and transmission facilities that are owned and operated by third parties, and as a result, are exposed to interconnection and transmission facility development and curtailment risks.
Moreover, our EVx systems and EVRCs are intended to be interconnected with electric distribution and transmission facilities owned and operated by regulated utilities, and independent system operators, necessary to deliver the electricity that our energy storage systems produce. A failure or delay in the operation or development of these distribution or transmission facilities could result in a loss of revenues or breach of a contract because such a failure or delay could limit the amount of renewable electricity that our energy storage systems deliver or delay the completion of our customers’ construction projects. In addition, certain of our energy storage systems’ generation may be curtailed without compensation due to distribution and transmission limitations, reducing our revenues and impairing our ability to capitalize fully on a particular customer project’s potential. Such a failure or curtailment at levels above our expectations could adversely affect our business.
Incorrect estimates or assumptions by management in connection with the preparation of our consolidated financial statements could adversely affect our reported assets, liabilities, income, revenue or expenses.
The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires management to make critical accounting estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, income, revenues or expenses during the reporting periods. Incorrect estimates and assumptions by management could adversely affect our reported amounts of assets, liabilities, income, revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. If we make incorrect assumptions or estimates, our reported financial results may be over- or understated, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations
Unanticipated changes in our income tax rates or exposure to additional tax liabilities may affect future financial results.
We are a U.S. corporation and thus subject to U.S. corporate income tax on its worldwide operations. Certain of our operations and potential customers are located in the United States, and as a result, we are subject to various U.S. federal, state and local taxes. New U.S. laws and policy relating to taxes may have an adverse effect on our business and future profitability. Further, existing U.S. tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances could be interpreted, changed, modified or applied adversely to us.
For example, on December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Tax Act”), was signed into law making significant changes to the Code, and certain provisions of the Tax Act may adversely affect us. In particular, sweeping changes were made to the U.S. taxation of foreign operations. Changes include, but are not limited to, a reduction to the corporate income tax rate from a top marginal rate of 35% to a flat rate of 21%, the limitation of the tax deduction for net interest expense to 30% of adjusted taxable income (except for certain small businesses), the limitation of the deduction for net operating losses from taxable years
 
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beginning after December 31, 2017 to 80% of current year taxable income and the elimination of net operating loss carrybacks generated in taxable years ending after December 31, 2017 (though any such net operating losses may be carried forward indefinitely), adoption of elements of a territorial tax system, assessment of a repatriation tax or “toll-charge” on undistributed earnings and profits of U.S.-owned foreign corporations, and introduction of certain anti-base erosion provisions, including a new minimum tax on global intangible low-taxed income and base erosion and anti-abuse tax. Additionally, on March 27, 2020, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (“CARES Act”) was signed into law, and among other things, the CARES Act suspends the 80% limitation on the deduction for net operating losses in taxable years beginning before January 1, 2021, permits a 5-year carryback of net operating losses arising in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2021, and generally caps the limitation on the deduction for net interest expense at 50% of adjusted taxable income for taxable years beginning in 2019 and 2020.
Further, President Joe Biden has set forth several tax proposals that would, if enacted, make significant changes to U.S. tax laws (including provisions enacted pursuant to the Tax Act). Such proposals include, but are not limited to an increase in the U.S. income tax rate applicable to corporations from 21% to 28%, (ii) an increase in the maximum U.S. federal income tax rate applicable to individuals and (iii) an increase in the U.S. federal income tax rate for long term capital gain for certain taxpayers with income in excess of a threshold amount. Congress may consider, and could include, some or all of these proposals in connection with tax reform to be undertaken by the current administration. It is unclear whether these or similar changes will be enacted and, if enacted, how soon any such changes could take effect. The passage of any legislation as a result of these proposals and other similar changes in U.S. federal income tax laws could adversely affect our business and future profitability. Investors are urged to consult with their legal and tax advisors with respect to any such legislation and the potential tax consequences of holding our securities.
Additionally, although we currently primarily operate in the U.S. and Switzerland, we will seek to expand our business internationally to other markets including additional EU countries, the U.K., Saudi Arabia, Australia, Brazil. Any international expansion of our business could subject our business to tax risks associated with international operations. For example, tax compliance in various jurisdictions, some of which may have potentially conflicting tax laws, and all of which are subject to change, potentially with retroactive effect, could result in materially higher cash tax liabilities for our business. The tax laws in jurisdictions where we conduct business and applicable U.S. tax laws as they relate to international operations may not act together in a coordinated fashion, which could also result in material incremental taxes for our business. Moreover, an expansion of our business internationally also creates risks that our business could have a taxable presence in jurisdictions where we are not filing tax returns. Taxing authorities have gotten increasingly aggressive regarding asserting that companies have a taxable presence in jurisdictions, and our business could face these risks in connection with the internal expansion of our business.
Cyber-attacks and other security breaches could have an adverse effect on our business, harm our reputation and expose us to liability.
Computer malware, viruses, physical or electronic break-ins and similar disruptions could lead to interruption and delays in our services and operations and loss, misuse or theft of data. Computer malware, viruses, ransomware, hacking and phishing attacks against online networks have become more prevalent and may occur on our systems in the future. Due to the political uncertainty involving Russia and Ukraine, there is an increased likelihood that escalation of tensions could result in cyber-attacks or cybersecurity incidents that could either directly or indirectly impact our operations. Any attempts by cyber attackers to disrupt our services or systems, if successful, could harm our business, introduce liability to data subjects, result in the misappropriation of funds, be expensive to remedy and damage our reputation or brand. Insurance may not be sufficient to cover significant expenses and losses related to cyber-attacks (such as the May 2021 cyber-attacks with Colonial Pipeline). Efforts to prevent cyber attackers from entering computer systems are expensive to implement, and we may not be able to cause the implementation or enforcement of such preventions with respect to our third-party vendors. Though it is difficult to determine what, if any, harm may directly result from any specific interruption or attack, any failure to maintain performance, reliability, security and availability of systems and technical infrastructure may, in addition to other losses, harm our reputation, brand and ability to attract customers.
 
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We may in the future experience, service disruptions, outages and other performance problems due to a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, third-party service providers, human or software errors and capacity constraints.
We are putting processes and procedures in place designed to enable Energy Vault to quickly recover from a disaster or catastrophe and continue business operations and have tested this capability under controlled circumstances. However, there are several factors ranging from human error to data corruption that could materially impact the efficacy of such processes and procedures, including by lengthening the time services are partially or fully unavailable to customers and users. It may be difficult or impossible to perform some or all recovery steps and continue normal business operations due to the nature of a particular disaster or catastrophe, especially during peak periods, which could cause additional reputational damages, or loss of revenues, any of which could adversely affect our business and financial results.
In the future our EVx systems, EVRCs and any digital platform that we develop may experience outages and other performance problems due to a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, third-party service providers, human or software errors and capacity constraints. We may also face changes in our EVx system and EVRCs, which could lead to damages, accidents and or system disruptions. We may in the future experience blackmail for our EVx software or any software underpinning any digital platform that we may develop, which could shut down operation of our systems, those of our potential customers, or cause other damage to such systems.
Any significant disruption in our computer systems, some of which will be hosted by third-party providers, could damage our reputation and result in negative publicity, which would harm our business and results of operations.
Although the computer systems for our EVx systems and EVRCs will strictly be on-premise, we will use third-party web services for administrative purposes and as a backup for our customers in case there is an on-site system failure. Interruptions, whether due to system failures, human errors, computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins, denial-of-service attacks, and capacity limitations, could delay or inhibit our operations. Problems with the reliability of our systems could prevent us from earning revenue and could harm our reputation. Damage to our reputation, any resulting loss of user confidence and the cost of remedying these problems could negatively affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and prospects.
We have service agreements with data center providers. Problems with our third-party service providers or with their network providers or with the systems allocating capacity among their users, including us, could adversely affect our ability to serve our customers or perform our administrative work. Our third-party service providers could decide to close their facilities without adequate notice. Any financial difficulties, such as bankruptcy or reorganization, faced by our third-party service providers or any of the service providers with whom they contract may have negative effects on our business, the nature and extent of which are difficult to predict. If our third-party service providers are unable to keep up with our needs for capacity, this could have an adverse effect on our business. In the event that our agreements with any of our third-party service providers is terminated, or we add additional cloud infrastructure service providers, we may experience significant costs or downtime in connection with the transfer to, or the addition of, new cloud infrastructure service providers. Any of the above circumstances or events may harm our reputation and brand or increase our costs, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Changes in business, economic, or political conditions, including overall changes in demand, are beyond our control and could impact our business, resulting in lower revenues and other adverse effects to our results of operations.
In recent years, the United States and other significant markets have experienced cyclical downturns and worldwide economic conditions remain uncertain. This was especially the case in 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, there is uncertainty relating to Russian acts in Ukraine and the potential escalation of tensions in the region. In addition, economic uncertainty and associated macroeconomic conditions make it extremely difficult for our partners, suppliers, and us to accurately forecast and plan future business activities and could cause our customers to slow spending on our offerings.
 
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A significant downturn in the domestic or global economy may cause our customers to pause, delay, or cancel spending on our offerings or seek to lower their costs by exploring alternatives. To the extent purchases of our offerings are perceived by customers and potential customers as discretionary, our revenue may be disproportionately affected by delays or reductions in energy storage spending. Also, competitors may respond to challenging market conditions by lowering prices and attempting to lure away our customers.
Similarly, our business depends on the overall business and global or regional political conditions, which are beyond our control.
We cannot predict the timing, strength, or duration of any economic slowdown or any subsequent recovery generally, or any industry in particular or how global business and political conditions may change. To the extent that general business, economic or political conditions, including overall changes in demand for our products, decline, our business, financial condition and results of operations, including revenues, could be materially adversely affected.
Our facilities or systems could be damaged or adversely affected as a result of disasters or other unpredictable events. Any prolonged disruption in operations would adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Our facilities or systems could be adversely affected by events outside of our control, such as natural catastrophic events, geographical instability, wars, and other calamities. For example, an installed EVx system or EVRC could be severely damaged by fire or earthquake, and the severity of such event may be exacerbated if we, as opposed to our customer, own such product. We cannot assure you that, collectively, our process and procedures to recover from a disaster or catastrophe will be adequate to protect us from the effects of fire, floods, typhoons, earthquakes, power loss, telecommunications failures, break-ins, war, riots, terrorist attacks, pandemics (including the COVID-19 pandemic) or similar events. Any of the foregoing events may give rise to interruptions, breakdowns, system failures, technology platform failures or internet failures, which could cause the loss or corruption of data or malfunctions of software or hardware as well as adversely affect our ability to produce our EVx systems. In addition, to the extent such events precipitate prolonged disruptions in our operations, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results may be materially adversely affected.
Our financial condition and results of operations as well as those of potential customers have been, and may continue to be for the foreseeable future, adversely affected by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which has caused a material adverse effect on the level of economic activity around the world, including in the markets we serve.
On March 12, 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 to be a pandemic. In an effort to contain and mitigate the spread of COVID-19, many countries, including the United States, imposed unprecedented restrictions on travel and business operations, and there have been business closures and a substantial reduction in economic activity in countries that have had significant outbreaks of COVID-19, including in the markets we serve. In certain cases, these restrictions have been lifted and then reimposed in part or in full.
Our operations and performance depend significantly on global and regional economic conditions, and the outbreak of COVID-19, together with the measures taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, has had a significant negative effect on global and regional economies. For example, Energy Vault contracted a third party to build the crane that is part of its commercial demonstration unit in Switzerland. The third party failed to deliver critical equipment, and certain errors in construction became apparent. We therefore terminated the relationship, and the construction of the crane in Switzerland was more expensive and took longer than expected. We believe that the effects COVID-19 exacerbated the additional costs and time required to complete this crane and that the completion of the crane was delayed by at least six months.
We are continuing to conduct business with substantial restrictions, such as remote working and less employee travel, among other modifications. We also put into place health and safety policies. As a cash conservation policy, we also instituted salary reductions across our entire employee base, including members of our senior management team.
 
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The global outbreak of COVID-19 continues to rapidly evolve, especially as COVID-19 cases and corresponding government actions responsive to COVID-19 continue to increase in certain parts of the world. The extent to which COVID-19 may impact our business will depend on future developments, which cannot be predicted with confidence, including the duration of the pandemic, travel restrictions, social distancing requirements or other governmental or business disruptions, global unemployment rates, the development and distribution of vaccines, the emergence of COVID-19 variants, and the effectiveness of actions taken in the United States and other countries to prevent, contain, and treat the disease. See the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Key Factors and Trends Affecting our Business — COVID-19” for a further discussion of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business.
While Legacy Energy Vault did not make material acquisitions, should Energy Vault pursue acquisitions in the future, it would be subject to risks associated with acquisitions.
Energy Vault may acquire additional assets, products, technologies or businesses that are complementary to its existing business. The process of identifying and consummating acquisitions and the subsequent integration of new assets and businesses into Energy Vault’s own business would require attention from management and could result in a diversion of resources from its existing business, which in turn could have an adverse effect on its operations. Acquired assets or businesses may not generate the expected financial results. Acquisitions could also result in the use of cash, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the occurrence of goodwill impairment charges, amortization expenses for other intangible assets and exposure to potential unknown liabilities of the acquired business.
If Energy Vault completes future acquisitions, it may not ultimately strengthen its competitive position or achieve its goals and business strategy; Energy Vault may be subject to claims or liabilities assumed from an acquired company, product, or technology; acquisitions Energy Vault completes could be viewed negatively by its customers, investors, and securities analysts; and Energy Vault may incur costs and expenses necessary to address an acquired company’s failure to comply with laws and governmental rules and regulations. Additionally, Energy Vault may be subject to litigation or other claims in connection with the acquired company, including claims from terminated employees, former stockholders or other third parties, which may differ from or be more significant than the risks Energy Vault’s business faces. If Energy Vault is unsuccessful at integrating future acquisitions in a timely manner, or the technologies and operations associated with such acquisitions, our revenue and operating results could be adversely affected. Any integration process may require significant time and resources, which may disrupt Energy Vault’s ongoing business and divert management’s attention, and Energy Vault may not be able to manage the integration process successfully or in a timely manner. Energy Vault may not successfully evaluate or utilize the acquired technology or personnel, realize anticipated synergies from the acquisition, or accurately forecast the financial impact of an acquisition transaction and integration of such acquisition, including accounting charges and any potential impairment of goodwill and intangible assets recognized in connection with such acquisitions. Energy Vault may have to pay cash, incur debt, or issue equity or equity-linked securities to pay for any future acquisitions, each of which could adversely affect its financial condition or the market price of its Common Stock. Furthermore, the sale of equity or issuance of equity-linked debt to finance any future acquisitions could result in dilution to Energy Vault’s stockholders. The occurrence of any of these risks could harm Energy Vault’s business, operating results, and financial condition.
We expect to incur significant increased expenses and administrative burdens as a public company, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We expect to incur increased legal, accounting, administrative and other costs and expenses as a public company that Legacy Energy Vault did not incur as a private company. We expect such costs and increases to be increased further after we are no longer an emerging growth company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, including the requirements of Section 404, as well as rules and regulations subsequently implemented by the SEC, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 and the rules and regulations promulgated and to be promulgated thereunder, the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board and the securities exchanges, impose additional reporting and other obligations on public companies. Compliance with public company requirements will increase costs and make certain activities more time-consuming. A number of those requirements require us to carry out activities we have not done previously.
 
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In addition, expenses associated with SEC reporting requirements will be incurred. Furthermore, if any issues in complying with those requirements are identified (for example, if the auditors identify a significant deficiency or material weaknesses in the internal control over financial reporting), we could incur additional costs to rectify those issues, and the existence of those issues could adversely affect our reputation or investor perceptions.
In addition, we will maintain director and officer liability insurance, which has substantial additional premiums. Advocacy efforts by stockholders and third parties may also prompt additional changes in governance and reporting requirements, which could further increase costs.
As a private company, Legacy Energy Vault did not endeavor to establish and maintain public company-quality internal control over financial reporting. If we fail to establish and maintain proper and effective internal control over financial reporting as a public company, our ability to produce accurate and timely financial statements could be impaired, investors may lose confidence in our financial reporting and the trading price of our Common Stock may decline.
Pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the report by management on internal control over financial reporting will be on our financial reporting and internal controls (as accounting acquirer). As a private company, Legacy Energy Vault was not previously required to conduct an internal control evaluation and assessment. The rules governing the standards that must be met for management to assess internal control over financial reporting are complex and require significant documentation, testing and possible remediation. To comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the requirements of being a reporting company under the Exchange Act and any complex accounting rules in the future, we may need to upgrade our legacy information technology systems; implement additional financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures; and hire additional accounting and finance staff.
If we are unable to hire the additional accounting and finance staff necessary to comply with these requirements, it may need to retain additional outside consultants. we or, if required, our independent registered public accounting firm, are unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, investors may lose confidence in our financial reporting, which could negatively impact the market price of our Common Stock.
Risks Related to Government Regulation
Our business may depend on the continued availability of rebates, tax credits and other financial incentives. The reduction, modification, or elimination of government economic incentives could cause our revenue to decline and harm our financial results.
The U.S. federal government and some state and local governments provide incentives to end users in the form of rebates, tax credits, and other financial incentives, such as system performance payments and payments for renewable energy credits associated with renewable energy generation. For example, current U.S. law enables any utilization of the federal 30% Investment Tax Credit (ITC) in case a storage project is built in combination with a solar facility. In addition, some countries outside the United States also provide incentives to end users. Our EVx systems may qualify for tax exemptions, incentives, or other customer incentives in certain jurisdictions. Some states have utility procurement programs and/or renewable portfolio standards for which our technology may be eligible. Our business may rely on these governmental rebates, tax credits, and other financial incentives to significantly lower the effective price of our EVx systems to our customers. However, these incentives may expire on a particular date, end when the allocated funding is exhausted, or be reduced or terminated as a matter of regulatory or legislative policy.
Changes in the availability of rebates, tax credits, and other financial programs and incentives could reduce demand for our EVx systems, impair sales financing, and adversely impact our business results. The continuation of these programs and incentives depends upon political support which to date has been bipartisan and durable. Nevertheless, a set of political activists may seek to expand these programs while may seek to eliminate them.
We could be liable for environmental damage resulting from our operations, which could impact our reputation, our business, and our operating results.
We are subject to federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations as well as environmental laws in those foreign jurisdictions in which we operate. Environmental laws and regulations can be complex
 
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and may often change. These laws can give rise to liability for administrative oversight costs, cleanup costs, property damage, bodily injury, fines, and penalties. Capital and operating expenses needed to comply with environmental laws and regulations can be significant, and violations may result in substantial fines and penalties or third-party damages. In addition, maintaining compliance with applicable environmental laws requires significant time and management resources and could cause delays in our ability to build out, equip and operate our facilities as well as service our fleet, which would adversely impact our business, our prospects, our financial condition, and our operating results. In addition, environmental laws and regulations such as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act in the United States impose liability on several grounds including for the investigation and cleanup of contaminated soil and ground water, for building contamination, for impacts to human health and for damages to natural resources. If contamination is discovered in the future at properties formerly owned or operated by us or currently owned or operated by us, or properties to which hazardous substances were sent by us, it could result in our liability under environmental laws and regulations. Many of our customers who have agreed to purchase our EVx systems and EVRCs have high sustainability standards, and any environmental noncompliance by us could harm our reputation and impact a current or potential customer’s buying decision. Additionally, in many cases we contractually commit to performing all necessary installation work on a fixed-price basis, and unanticipated costs associated with environmental remediation and/or compliance expenses may cause the cost of performing such work to exceed our revenue. The costs of complying with environmental laws, regulations, and customer requirements, and any claims concerning noncompliance or liability with respect to contamination in the future, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or our operating results.
Action by governmental authorities and local residents to restrict construction or use of our systems in their localities could substantially harm our business and financial results.
In the United States and elsewhere, the construction and implementation of our systems is subject to local laws, regulations, rules and agreements regarding zoning, permitting and land use. From time to time, various interest groups lobby for or against amendments to such rules that would allow potential customers to implement our systems in locations desirable to them. In certain cases, potential customers may need to petition for changes or waivers to such rules in order to be allowed to implement our systems. In all cases, governmental authorities and local residents may oppose the implementation of our systems by our potential customers, which could cause delays, potential damage to our relationships with customers and increased costs to us and our customers. If laws, regulations, rules, or agreements significantly restrict or discourage our potential customers in certain jurisdictions from purchasing and implementing our systems, it would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition. In addition, there can be no assurance that future macroeconomic pressures and public policy concerns could continue to lead to new laws and regulations, or interpretations of existing laws and regulations, that would limit our future customers’ use of our systems.
Changes in regulatory enforcement policies and priorities may negatively impact the management of our business, results of operations, and ability to compete.
Energy and environmental regulation is constantly changing, and policy or changes in enforcement of existing laws or regulations applicable to our business, or reexamination of current practices, could adversely impact our profitability, limit our ability to continue existing or pursue new business activities, require us to change certain of our business practices, affect retention of key personnel, or expose us to additional costs (including increased compliance costs and/or customer remediation). These changes also may require us to invest significant resources, and devote significant management attention, to make any necessary changes and could adversely affect our business.
We are subject to licensing and operational requirements that result in substantial compliance costs, and our business would be adversely affected if our licenses are impaired.
Our business is subject to numerous federal and state laws and regulations. In particular, our business is subject to oversight and regulation under local ordinances, building, zoning and fire codes, environmental protection regulation, utility interconnection requirements, and other rules and regulations. Such licenses often require us to operate in ways that incur substantial compliance costs.
 
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To date, we have not deployed any EVx systems. We intend to obtain and hold the certificates and/or licenses needed for our near-term plans to install EVx systems. Although we believe that obtaining and renewing such certificates and/or licenses will be routine, we cannot assure you that any of them will be renewed in a timely manner. Our failure to hold a given license or certificate would impair our ability to perform our obligations under our customer contracts. The number of laws affecting our business continues to grow. If our licenses or certificates were impaired, whether by expiration, nonrenewal or modification or termination, our business would be adversely impaired.
We can give no assurances that we will properly and timely comply with all laws and regulations that may affect us. If we fail to comply with these laws and regulations, we may be subject to legal penalties, which would adversely affect our business, prospects, and results of operations.
Litigation, regulatory actions and compliance issues could subject us to significant fines, penalties, judgments, remediation costs, negative publicity and requirements resulting in increased expenses.
We have been and continue to be involved in legal proceedings, administrative proceedings, claims and other litigation that arise in the ordinary course of business. In addition, since our energy storage system is a new type of product in a nascent market, we may in the future need to seek the amendment of existing regulations or, in some cases, the creation of new regulations, in order to operate our business in some jurisdictions. Such regulatory processes may require public hearings concerning our business, which could expose us to subsequent litigation.
Unfavorable outcomes or developments relating to proceedings to which we are a party or transactions involving our products, such as judgments for monetary damages, injunctions, or denial or revocation of permits, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. To the extent such proceedings also generate negative publicity, our reputation and business could also be adversely affected. In addition, handling compliance issues and the settlement of claims could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Laws, regulations and rules relating to privacy, information security, and data protection could increase our costs and adversely affect our business opportunities. In addition, the ongoing costs of complying with such laws, regulations and rules could be significant.
We are subject to various laws regarding privacy, information security and data protection. In particular, our handling of data relating to individuals is subject to a variety of laws and regulations relating to privacy, data protection, and information security, and it may become subject to additional obligations, including contractual obligations, relating to our maintenance and other processing of this data. For example, the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, imposes stringent data protection requirements and provides for significant penalties for noncompliance. Laws, regulations, and other actual and potential obligations relating to privacy, data protection, and data security are evolving rapidly, and the regulatory landscape regarding privacy, data protection, and data security is likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. We expect to be subject to new laws and regulations, or new interpretations of laws and regulations, in the future in various jurisdictions. These laws, regulations, and other obligations, and changes in their interpretation, could require us to modify our operations and practices, restrict our activities, and increase our costs in the future, and it is possible that these laws, regulations, and other obligations may be inconsistent with one another or be interpreted or asserted to be inconsistent with our business or practices. Any inability to adequately address privacy and security concerns or comply with applicable privacy and information security laws, rules and regulations could have an adverse effect on our business, prospects, results of operations, financial position and reputation.
Risks Related to Intellectual Property
We may be unable to protect, defend, maintain or enforce intellectual property on which our business depends, including as against existing or future competitors. Failure to protect defend, maintain and enforce that intellectual property could result in our competitors offering similar products, potentially adversely affecting our growth and success.
Although we have taken many protective measures to protect our trade secrets, including agreements, limited access, segregation of knowledge, password protections and other measures, policing unauthorized
 
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use of proprietary technology can be difficult and expensive. For example, certain of our engineers reside in California and it is not legally permissible to prevent them from working for a competitor, if and when one should exist. Also, litigation may be necessary to enforce our intellectual property rights, protect our trade secrets, or determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others. Such litigation may result in our intellectual property rights being challenged, limited in scope, or declared invalid or unenforceable. We cannot be certain that the outcome of any litigation will be in our favor, and an adverse determination in any such litigation could impair our intellectual property rights and may harm our business, prospects and reputation.
We rely primarily on patent, copyright, trade secret and trademark laws, and non-disclosure, confidentiality, and other types of contractual restrictions to establish, maintain, and enforce our intellectual property and proprietary rights. However, our rights under these laws and agreements afford us only limited protection and the actions we take to establish, maintain, and enforce our intellectual property rights may not be adequate. For example, our trade secrets and other confidential information could be disclosed in an unauthorized manner to third parties, our owned or licensed intellectual property rights could be challenged, invalidated, circumvented, infringed, or misappropriated or our intellectual property rights may not be sufficient to provide us with a competitive advantage, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or operating results. In addition, the laws of some countries do not protect proprietary rights as fully as do the laws of the United States. As a result, we may not be able to protect our proprietary rights adequately abroad.
Our patents and, patent applications if issued, may not provide adequate protection to create a barrier to entry. The provisional and non-provisional patent applications that we own may not issue as patents or provide adequate protection to create a barrier to entry, which may hinder our ability to prevent competitors from selling products similar to ours.
We cannot be certain that our pending patent applications will result in issued patents or that any of our issued patents will afford protection against a competitor. The status of patents involves complex legal and factual questions, and the breadth of claims allowed is uncertain. As a result, we cannot be certain that the patent applications that we file will result in patents being issued or that our patents and any patents that may be issued to us in the future will afford protection against competitors with similar technology. In addition, patent applications filed in foreign countries are subject to laws, rules, and procedures that differ from those of the United States, and thus we cannot be certain that foreign patent applications related to issued U.S. patents will be issued in other regions. Furthermore, even if these patent applications are accepted and the associated patents issued, some foreign countries provide significantly less effective patent enforcement than in the United States.
In addition, patents issued to us may be infringed upon or designed around by others and others may obtain patents that we need to license or design around, either of which would increase costs and may adversely affect our business, our prospects, and our operating results.
We may be subject to third-party claims of infringement, misappropriation or other violation of intellectual property rights, or other claims challenging our agreements related to intellectual property, which may be time-consuming and costly to defend, and could result in substantial liability.
Companies, organizations, or individuals, including our competitors, may hold or obtain patents, trademarks, or other proprietary rights that they may in the future believe are infringed by our products or services. These companies holding patents or other intellectual property rights allegedly relating to our technologies could, in the future, make claims or bring suits alleging infringement, misappropriation, or other violations of such rights, or otherwise assert their rights and by seeking royalties or injunctions. If a claim is successfully brought in the future and we or our products are determined to have infringed, misappropriated, or otherwise violated a third party’s intellectual property rights, we may be required to do one or more of the following:

cease selling or using our products that incorporate the challenged intellectual property;

pay substantial damages (including treble damages and attorneys’ fees if our infringement is determined to be willful);
 
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obtain a license from the holder of the intellectual property right, which may not be available on reasonable terms or at all; or

redesign our products or means of production, which may not be possible or cost-effective.
Any of the foregoing could adversely affect our business, prospects, operating results, and financial condition. In addition, any litigation or claims, whether or not valid, could harm our reputation, result in substantial costs and divert resources and management attention.
We also license technology from third parties and incorporate components supplied by third parties into our products. We may in the future face claims that our use of such technology or components infringes or otherwise violates the rights of others, which would subject us to the risks described above. We may in some cases seek indemnification from our licensors or suppliers under our contracts with them, but our rights to indemnification or our suppliers’ resources may be unavailable or insufficient to cover our costs and losses.
Risks Related to Ownership of our Securities
Concentration of ownership among our executive officers, directors and their affiliates may prevent new investors from influencing significant corporate decisions.
As of April 1, 2022, our executive officers, directors and their affiliates as a group beneficially own approximately 38.5% of our outstanding Common Stock. As a result, these stockholders are able to exercise a significant level of control over all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors, appointment and removal of officers, any amendment of the amended and restated certificate of incorporation and approval of mergers and other business combination transactions requiring stockholder approval. This control could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control or changes in management and will make the approval of certain transactions difficult or impossible without the support of these stockholders.
The SEC has recently issued guidance on the accounting treatment of warrants. We have accounted for our outstanding Warrants as a warrant liability and will be required to determine the value warrant liability quarterly, which could have a material impact on our financial position and operating results.
In the Staff Statement issued by the Staff of the SEC on April 12, 2021, the Staff expressed its view that certain terms and conditions common to SPAC warrants may require the Warrants to be classified as liabilities on the SPAC’s balance sheet as opposed to equity. Following the issuance of such Staff Statement, on May 20, 2021, Novus concluded that it was appropriate to restate its previously issued audited balance sheet as of February 8, 2021. A summary of the effect of the restatement on the audited balance sheet was included in the notes to the financial statements filed as part of Novus’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the three months ended March 31, 2021. The restated balance sheet summary reflects the change in accounting treatment of the Public Warrants and Private Warrants issued in connection with its initial public offering in February 2021 (which were previously recorded as a component of equity on the balance sheet) as liabilities measured at fair value upon issuance, with subsequent changes in fair value reported in the statement of operations for subsequent reporting periods. Under this accounting treatment, we are required to measure the fair value of the Warrants on a quarterly basis as well as re-evaluate the treatment of the Warrants and recognize changes in the fair value from the prior period in our operating results for the current period, which could have a material impact on our financial position and operating results. The impact of changes in fair value on earnings, which may be material, may have an adverse effect on the market price of our securities.
We may face litigation and other risks as a result of the material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting and may report additional material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting in the future.
On May 20, 2021, Novus concluded that it was appropriate to restate its previously issued audited balance sheet as of February 8, 2021, and as part of such process, Novus identified a material weakness in its internal control over financial reporting. Additionally, on November 14, 2021, Novus concluded that it was
 
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appropriate to restate its previously issued unaudited financial statements for the periods ended March 31, 2021 and June 30, 2021, and as part of such process, Novus identified an additional material weakness in its internal control over financial reporting resulting from the improper valuation of its Class A common stock subject to possible redemption.. We cannot assure as to when these material weaknesses will be remediated.
As a result of such material weaknesses, the changes in accounting for our Warrants and our Common Stock, and other matters raised or that may in the future be raised by the SEC, we face potential for litigation or other disputes, which may include, among others, claims invoking the federal and state securities laws, contractual claims or other claims arising from the material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting and the preparation of our financial statements. As of the date of this prospectus, we have no knowledge of any such litigation or dispute. However, we can provide no assurance that such litigation or dispute will not arise in the future. Any such litigation or dispute, whether successful or not, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We cannot assure you that there will not be additional material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting now or in the future. Any failure to maintain internal control over financial reporting could severely inhibit our ability to accurately report our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. If we are unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm determines that we have a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of our Common Stock could decline, and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the NYSE, the SEC or other regulatory authorities. Failure to remedy any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, or to implement or maintain other effective control systems required of public companies, could also restrict our future access to the capital markets.
Our failure to timely and effectively implement controls and procedures required by Section 404(a) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act could negatively impact its business.
As a public company, we will be required to provide management’s attestation on internal controls. The standards required for a public company under Section 404(a) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act are significantly more stringent than those required of a privately held company. Management may not be able to effectively and timely implement controls and procedures that adequately respond to the increased regulatory compliance and reporting requirements. If we are not able to implement the additional requirements of Section 404(a) in a timely manner or with adequate compliance, we may not be able to assess whether our internal controls over financial reporting are effective, which may subject it to adverse regulatory consequences and could harm investor confidence and the market price of our securities.
We qualify as an “emerging growth company” and “smaller reporting company” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and take advantage of certain exemptions from disclosure requirements available to emerging growth companies, which could make our securities less attractive to investors and may make it more difficult to compare our performance to the performance of other public companies.
We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the Securities Act, as modified by the JOBS Act. As such, we are eligible for and intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies for as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, including (a) the exemption from the auditor attestation requirements with respect to internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, (b) the exemptions from say-on-pay, say-on-frequency and say-on-golden parachute voting requirements and (c) reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in its periodic reports and proxy statements. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which the market value of our Common Stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of June 30 of that fiscal year, (ii) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of $1.07 billion or more during such fiscal year (as indexed for inflation), (iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt in the prior three-year period or (iv) December 31, 2026. In addition, Section 107 of the JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of the exemption from complying with new or revised accounting standards provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act as long as the company is an
 
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emerging growth company. An emerging growth company can therefore delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected not to opt out of such extended transition period and, therefore, we may not be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.
Even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, we may still qualify as a “smaller reporting company,” which would allow us to continue to take advantage of many of the same exemptions from disclosure requirements, including not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements, Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements. Moreover, smaller reporting companies may choose to present only the two most recent fiscal years of audited financial statements in their Annual Reports on Form 10-K.
Investors may find our Common Stock less attractive because we rely on these exemptions, which may result in a less active trading market for our Common Stock and its price may be more volatile.
Our management has limited experience in operating a public company.
Our executive officers have limited experience in the management of a publicly traded company. Our management team may not successfully or effectively manage the transition to a public company that will be subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under federal securities laws. Their limited experience in dealing with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies could be a significant disadvantage in that it is likely that an increasing amount of their time may be devoted to these activities, which will result in less time being devoted to the management and growth of our business. We may not have adequate personnel with the appropriate level of knowledge, experience, and training in the accounting policies, practices or internal controls over financial reporting required of public companies in the United States. The development and implementation of the standards and controls necessary for us to achieve the level of accounting standards required of a public company in the United States may require costs greater than expected. It is possible that we will be required to expand our employee base and hire additional employees to support our operations as a public company, which will increase its operating costs in future periods.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish or cease publishing research or reports about us, our business, or our market, or if they change their recommendations regarding our securities adversely, the price and trading volume of our securities could decline.
Research and reports that industry or securities analysts may publish about us, our business, our market or our competitors may influence the public market for our securities. Securities and industry analysts do not currently, and may never, publish research on us. If no securities or industry analysts commence coverage of us, price and trading volume of our publicly traded securities would likely be negatively impacted. If any of the analysts who may cover us change their recommendation regarding the our securities adversely, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, the price of our publicly traded securities would likely decline. If any analyst who may cover us were to cease coverage of us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our share price or trading volume to decline.
Because we have no current plans to pay cash dividends on our Common Stock for the foreseeable future, you may not receive any return on investment unless you sell our Common Stock for a price greater than that which you paid for it.
We intend to retain future earnings, if any, for future operations, expansion and debt repayment and have no current plans to pay any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. In addition, the our ability to pay dividends may be limited by covenants of any existing and future outstanding indebtedness we or our subsidiaries incur. As a result, you may not receive any return on an investment in our Common Stock unless you sell your shares of Common Stock for a price greater than that which you paid for it.
 
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We may issue additional shares of Common Stock or other equity securities without your approval, which would dilute your ownership interests and may depress the market price of our Common Stock.
As of April 1, 2022, we had Warrants outstanding to purchase an aggregate of 14,749,922 shares of Common Stock. In addition, we may issue an aggregate of up to 15,516,760 shares of Common Stock pursuant to the 2022 Plan, which amount may be subject to increase from time to time. For additional information about this plan, please read the discussion under the headings “Executive Compensation — 
Equity Plans.” We may also issue additional shares of Common Stock or other equity securities of equal or senior rank in the future in connection with, among other things, future acquisitions or repayment of outstanding indebtedness, without stockholder approval, in a number of circumstances.
The issuance of additional shares or other equity securities of equal or senior rank would have the following effects:

existing stockholders’ proportionate ownership interest in our Company will decrease;

the amount of cash available per share, including for payment of dividends in the future, may decrease;

the relative voting strength of each previously outstanding Common Stock may be diminished; and

the market price of our Common Stock may decline.
If the selling security holders sell their securities, it may negatively impact the market price of the shares of our Common Stock and such holders still may receive significant proceeds.
Even if the price of our Common Stock falls below $10.00 per share, which was the price per unit sold in our IPO and the per-share price of the PIPE Shares, the Founders and the Legacy Energy Vault Stockholders (the “EV Reg Rights Holders”) who received shares of our Common Stock at the Closing and have registration rights pursuant to our amended and restated registration rights agreement (the “Registration Rights Agreement”) and Mr. Piconi, our director and Chief Executive Officer (together with the EV Reg Rights Holders, the “EV Sellers”) will be able to sell the securities registered hereby because they purchased such securities at prices significantly less than $10.00 per share. In particular, the Founders purchased their Founder Shares at a price of $0.004 per share and the Private Warrants at a price of $1.50 per warrant. The EV Sellers purchased their shares at a weighted-average price of $1.52 per share, after giving effect to the exchange ratio in the Business Combination. Accordingly, such Selling Securityholders could sell their securities at a per-share price that is less than $10.00 and could still realize a significant profit that would not be realized by investors in our IPO, who purchased units comprised of a share of our Common Stock and one-third of a Public Warrant at a price of $10.00 per unit, the Subscribers who purchased PIPE Shares at a price of $10.00 per share, or investors who purchased shares of our Common Stock on the open market at per-share prices over $10.00. On May 5, 2022, the closing price of our Common Stock was $14.21 and the closing price for our Public Warrants was $2.53. Based on such closing prices, the Selling Securityholders would have a potential unrealized gain of approximately $1.1 billion in the aggregate.
The registration statement, of which this prospectus forms a part, has been filed to discharge our obligations under the Registration Rights Agreement and Subscription Agreements with the Subscribers This prospectus also covers shares issuable upon exercise of the Public Warrants. In the aggregate, the number of shares registered for resale hereby equals 61.0% of the number of shares of our Common Stock outstanding as of April 1, 2022. Additionally, we intend to register for resale 23,981,119 shares subject to the Exchanged Options and Converted RSUs and to be issued under our equity incentive plans under a Registration Statement on Form S-8.
The sale or possibility of sale of these additional securities trading in the public market may negatively impact the market price of our Common Stock or the Public Warrants.
Our stock price may be volatile or may decline regardless of our operating performance. You may lose some or all of your investment.
The trading prices of the Common Stock and the Warrants are likely to be volatile. The stock market recently has experienced extreme volatility. This volatility often has been unrelated or disproportionate to
 
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the operating performance of particular companies. You may not be able to resell your shares at an attractive price due to a number of factors such as those listed in this section and the following:

the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our financial condition and the results of operations;

our operating and financial performance and prospects;

our quarterly or annual earnings or those of other companies in our industry compared to market expectations;

conditions that impact demand for our services;

future announcements concerning our business, our customers’ businesses, or our competitors’ businesses;

the public’s reaction to our press releases, other public announcements, and filings with the SEC;

the market’s reaction to our reduced disclosure and other requirements as a result of being an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act or a “smaller reporting company”;

the size of our public float;

coverage by or changes in financial estimates by securities analysts or failure to meet their expectations;

market and industry perception of our success, or lack thereof, in pursuing our growth strategy;

strategic actions by us or our competitors, such as acquisitions or restructurings;

changes in laws or regulations which adversely affect the energy storage industry generally or Energy Vault specifically;

changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations, or principles;

changes in senior management or key personnel;

issuances, exchanges or sales, or expected issuances, exchanges, or sales of our capital stock;

changes in our dividend policy;

adverse resolution of new or pending litigation against us; and

changes in general market, economic, and political conditions in the United States and global economies or financial markets, including those resulting from natural disasters, terrorist attacks, acts of war, and responses to such events.
These broad market and industry factors may materially reduce the market price of our securities, regardless of our operating performance. In addition, price volatility may be greater if the public float and trading volume of the Common Stock is low. As a result, you may suffer a loss on your investment.
Anti-takeover provisions in the Second A&R Charter, the Second A&R Bylaws and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of the Company, which may be beneficial to its stockholders, more difficult and may prevent attempts by its stockholders to replace or remove our current management.
The Second A&R Charter and the Second A&R Bylaws contains provisions that may delay or prevent an acquisition of us or a change in our management. These provisions may make it more difficult for stockholders to replace or remove members of our board of directors. Because our board of directors is responsible for appointing the members of the management team, these provisions could in turn frustrate or prevent any attempt by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management. In addition, these provisions could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our Common Stock. Among other things, these provisions include:

the limitation of the liability of, and the indemnification of, our directors and officers;

a prohibition on actions by our stockholders except at an annual or special meeting of stockholders;

a prohibition on actions by our stockholders by written consent; and
 
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the ability of our board of directors to issue preferred stock without stockholder approval, which could be used to institute a “poison pill” that would work to dilute the stock ownership of a potential hostile acquirer, effectively preventing acquisitions that have not been approved by our board of directors.
Moreover, because the we are incorporated in Delaware, we are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the DGCL, which prohibits a person who owns 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock from merging or combining with our Company for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person acquired 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock, unless the merger or combination is approved in a prescribed manner. This could discourage, delay or prevent a third party from acquiring or merging with us, whether or not it is desired by, or beneficial to, our stockholders. This could also have the effect of discouraging others from making tender offers for our Common Stock, including transactions that may be in our stockholders’ best interests. Finally, these provisions establish advance notice requirements for nominations for election to our board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon at stockholder meetings. These provisions would apply even if the offer may be considered beneficial by some stockholders. For more information, see the section titled “Description of Securities — Certain Anti-Takeover Provisions of Delaware Law.”
We may redeem your unexpired Public Warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to the holders of Public Warrants.
We have the ability to redeem outstanding Public Warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.01 per warrant if, among other things, the last reported sales price of our Common Stock equals or exceeds $18.00 per share (as adjusted for stock splits, stock dividends, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) for any 20 trading days within a 30 trading-day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date we send the notice of redemption to the warrant holders. If and when the Public Warrants become redeemable by us, we may exercise our redemption right even if we are unable to register or qualify the underlying securities for sale under all applicable state securities laws. As a result, we may redeem the Public Warrants as set forth above even if the holders are otherwise unable to exercise the Public Warrants. The Public Warrants differ from the Private Warrants since none of the Private Warrants will be redeemable by us so long as they are held by the Founders or their permitted transferees.
Redemption of the outstanding Public Warrants could force you to: (1) exercise your warrants and pay the exercise price therefor at a time when it may be disadvantageous for you to do so; (2) sell your warrants at the then-current market price when you might otherwise wish to hold your warrants; or (3) accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding warrants are called for redemption, we expect would be substantially less than the market value of your warrants.
Warrants will become exercisable for our Common Stock, which would increase the number of shares eligible for future resale in the public market and result in dilution to our stockholders.
The Warrants are exercisable for 14,749,922 shares of Common Stock at a weighted average exercise price of $11.50 per share. The shares of our Common Stock issued upon exercise of our Warrants will result in dilution to the then existing holders of Common Stock and increase the number of shares eligible for resale in the public market. Sales of substantial numbers of such shares in the public market could adversely affect the market price of our Common Stock.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We will receive proceeds equal to the aggregate exercise price from any exercise of the Warrants, assuming the exercise in full of all of the Warrants for cash. The exercise price for any of our Public Warrants and our Private Warrants is $11.50 per share, subject to certain specified adjustments. To the extent that the price of our Common Stock exceeds $11.50 per share, it is more likely that our warrantholders will exercise their warrants. To the extent that the price of our common stock declines, including by declining beneath $11.50 per share, it is less likely that our warrantholders will exercise their warrants.
We expect to use the net proceeds from the exercise of the Warrants for general corporate purposes. We will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from the exercise of the Warrants. There is no assurance that the holders of the Warrants will elect to exercise any or all of such Warrants. To the extent that the Warrants are exercised on a “cashless basis,” the amount of cash we would receive from the exercise of the Warrants will decrease.
All of the shares of Common Stock and Private Warrants offered by the Selling Securityholders pursuant to this prospectus will be sold by the Selling Securityholders for their account. We will not receive any of the proceeds from these sales.
DETERMINATION OF OFFERING PRICE
The offering price of the shares of Common Stock underlying the Warrants offered hereby is determined by reference to the exercise price of the Public Warrants and the Private Warrants of $11.50 per share. The Public Warrants are listed on the NYSE under the symbol “NRGV WS.”
We cannot currently determine the price or prices at which shares of our Common Stock or Private Warrants may be sold by the Selling Securityholders under this prospectus.
 
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MARKET INFORMATION FOR SECURITIES AND DIVIDEND POLICY
Market Information
Our Common Stock and Public Warrants are currently listed on the NYSE under the symbols “NRGV” and “NRGV WS,” respectively. Prior to the consummation of the Business Combination, our Common Stock and Public Warrants were listed on the NYSE under the symbols “NXU” and “NXU WS,” respectively. Prior to the Closing, there was no established public trading market for Legacy Energy Vault’s common stock. As of April 1, 2022, we had 133,633,288 shares of Common Stock issued and outstanding held of record by 134 holders, and warrants to purchase an aggregate of 14,749,922 shares of Common Stock outstanding held of record by 23 holders.
Dividends
We have not paid any cash dividends on the Common Stock to date. We may retain future earnings, if any, for future operations, expansion and debt repayment, and we have no current plans to pay cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of the Board and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors that we may deem relevant. We do not anticipate declaring any cash dividends to holders of the Common Stock in the foreseeable future. Further, our ability to declare dividends may be limited by the terms of financing or other agreements entered into by us or our subsidiaries from time to time.
Description of Registrant’s Securities
A description of our capital stock is in the section entitled “Description of Securities.”
 
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UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Introduction
As a result of the Business Combination and the other transactions contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement, NCCII Merger Corp. merged with and into Legacy Energy Vault, with Legacy Energy Vault continuing as the surviving entity as a wholly owned subsidiary of Novus, under the new name Energy Vault Holdings, Inc. and thereafter be known as the “Combined Company.” The following unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information has been prepared in accordance with Article 11 of Regulation S-X as amended by the final rule, Release No. 33-10786 “Amendments to Financial Disclosures about Acquired and Disposed Businesses”. Release No. 33-10786 provides pro forma adjustment criteria with requirements to depict the accounting for the transaction (“Transaction Accounting Adjustments”) and present the reasonably estimable synergies and other transaction effects that have occurred or reasonably expected to occur (“Management’s Adjustments”). Energy Vault, Inc. (the “Company”) has elected not to present Management’s Adjustments and will only be presenting Transaction Accounting Adjustments in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information.
Novus was a blank check company formed under the laws of the State of Delaware on September 29, 2020, for the purpose of effecting a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, reorganization or other similar business combination with one or more businesses. On February 8, 2021, Novus consummated its IPO of 28,750,000 Novus Units, with each Novus Unit consisting of one share of Novus Common Stock and one-third of one redeemable warrant, at a public offering price of $10.00 per Public Unit. Simultaneously with the closing of the IPO, Novus consummated the sale of 5,166,666 Private Warrants to Novus’s initial stockholders at a price of $1.50 per private warrant generating gross proceeds of $7,750,000. From the net proceeds from the IPO and the sale of the Private Warrants, $287,500,000 was placed in the Trust Account established for the benefit of the Novus’s public stockholders.
Legacy Energy Vault’s mission is to accelerate the decarbonization of the economy through the development of sustainable and economical energy storage technologies. To achieve this, Legacy Energy Vault is developing a proprietary gravity-based energy storage technology. Legacy Energy Vault’s product platform aims to help utilities, independent power producers, and large energy users significantly reduce their levelized cost of energy while maintaining power reliability.
The following unaudited pro forma condensed combined balance sheet as of December 31, 2021 assumes that the Business Combination occurred on December 31, 2021. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2021 presents the pro forma effect of the Business Combination as if it had been completed on January 1, 2021.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements have been presented for illustrative purposes only and do not necessarily reflect what the Combined Company’s financial condition or results of operations would have been had the acquisition occurred on the dates indicated. Further, the pro forma condensed combined financial information also may not be useful in predicting the future financial condition and results of operations of the Combined Company. The actual financial position and results of operations may differ significantly from the pro forma amounts reflected herein due to a variety of factors.
The historical financial information of Novus was derived from the audited financial statements of Novus as of and for the year ended December 31, 2021. The historical financial information of Legacy Energy Vault was derived from the audited consolidated financial statements of Legacy Energy Vault as of and for the year ended December 31, 2021. This information should be read together with the Novus’s and Legacy Energy Vault’s audited financial statements and related notes, the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” other information relating to Novus and Legacy Energy Vault included elsewhere herein and other financial information included elsewhere herein.
The Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization, in accordance with GAAP. Under this method of accounting, Novus was treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes. Accordingly, the Business Combination was treated as the equivalent of Legacy Energy Vault issuing stock for the net assets of Novus, accompanied by a recapitalization. The net assets of Novus are
 
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stated at historical cost, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded. Operations prior to the Business Combination are those of Legacy Energy Vault.
Legacy Energy Vault has been determined to be the accounting acquirer based on evaluation of the following facts and circumstances:

Legacy Energy Vault has the largest portion of voting rights in the Combined Company;

Legacy Energy Vault has the right to appoint majority of the directors in the Combined Company;

Legacy Energy Vault’s existing senior management team comprise senior management of the Combined Company;

The operations of the Combined Company primarily represent operations of Legacy Energy Vault;

The Combined Company assume Legacy Energy Vault’s name and headquarters.
Description of the Business Combination
The aggregate merger consideration paid in connection with the Business Combination was approximately $1.06 billion in the form of 106,318,576 shares of the Combined Company’s common stock.
The foregoing consideration to be paid to the Legacy Energy Vault security holders may be further increased by amounts payable as earn-out shares. There are three tranches of Earn Out Shares each of which will be issued if the closing price of Common Stock as reported on NYSE exceeds price thresholds as specified in the Business Combination Agreement (each, a Triggering Event) for a period of at least twenty (20) days within the preceding thirty (30) consecutive trading days. The Triggering Events must occur within the Earn Out Period. Each Triggering Event shall only occur once and in no event shall the eligible Legacy Energy Vault security holders be entitled to receive more than (i) 3,000,000 Earn Out Shares with respect to a Triggering Event and (ii) an aggregate of 9,000,000 Earn Out Shares. If the earn out condition is achieved for a tranche, the Combined Company account for the Earn Out Shares for such tranche as issued and outstanding Common Stock.
In connection with the Business Combination, the Founder Shares shall be held in escrow under restriction. The restriction on 11.25 % of the Founder Shares equivalent to 808,594 shares shall be released upon the date on which:
(i)
The closing price of the Combined common stock exceeds $12.50 per share for any 20 trading days within a 30-trading day period occurring from the announcement of the PIPE through the thirty-six months anniversary of the Closing Date or
(ii)
The closing of a sale, merger, liquidation, exchange offer, transaction after the Merger which results in the stockholders of Novus having the right to exchange their shares of Combined Common stock for cash, securities or other property having a value of at least $12.50 per share.
The restrictions on an additional 11.25% of the Founder Shares equivalent to 808,594 Shares shall be released upon the date on which:
(i)
the closing price of the Combined common stock equals or exceeds $15.00 per share for any 20 trading days within a 30-trading day period occurring from the announcement of the PIPE through the thirty-six months anniversary of the Closing Date or
(ii)
the closing of a sale, merger, the remaining Lock-Up Shares liquidation, or exchange offer transaction after the closing date of the Business Combination which results in the stockholders of the Company having the right to exchange their shares of Common Stock for cash securities or other property having a value of at least $15.00 per share.
 
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The following table summarizes the pro forma shares of common stock of the Combined Company outstanding immediately after the Closing of the Business Combination:
Shares
%
EV – Common Stock(1)
106,318,576 80.4%
Public Shares(2)
4,079,078 3.1%
Founder/ Sponsor Shares(3)
2,357,333 1.8%
PIPE
19,500,005 14.7%
Pro Forma common stock at December 31, 2021
132,254,992
100.0%
(1)
Excludes approximately 9,000,000 in estimated potential earn out shares as the price threshold for each tranche has not yet been triggered.
(2)
Excludes 5,166,666 Private Warrants and 9,583,333 Public Warrants
(3)
Excludes 1,617,188 shares with transfer restrictions, based on price threshold for each tranche not yet triggered, held in escrow and subject to potential forfeiture.
The following unaudited pro forma condensed combined balance sheet as of December 31, 2021 and the unaudited pro forma condensed combined statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2021 are based on the historical financial statements of Novus and Legacy Energy Vault. The unaudited pro forma adjustments are based on information currently available, and assumptions and estimates underlying the unaudited pro forma adjustments are described in the accompanying notes. Actual results may differ materially from the assumptions used to present the accompanying unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information.
 
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UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED BALANCE SHEET
AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2021
Energy Vault
(Historical)
Novus
(Historical)
Combined
Pro Forma
Adjustments
Pro Forma
Combined
ASSETS
Cash and cash equivalents
$ 105,124,886 $ 396,295 $ 105,521,181 $ 287,515,823
(B)
$ 299,219,686
(208,913)
(D)
(41,899,235)
(I)
195,000,050
(A)
(246,709,220)
(K)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
5,537,759 114,583 5,652,342 (3,587,650)
(I)
2,064,692
Total current assets
110,662,645 510,878 111,173,523 190,110,855 301,284,378
Marketable securities held in Trust
Account
287,515,823 287,515,823 (287,515,823)
(B)
Property, plant and equipment, net
11,867,840 11,867,840 11,867,840
Right of use assets, net
1,238,052 1,238,052 1,238,052
Convertible note receivable, net
654,449 654,449 654,449
Derivative Asset – conversion option
350,000 350,000 350,000
Other noncurrent assets
521,436 521,436 521,436
TOTAL ASSETS
$ 125,294,422 $ 288,026,701 $ 413,321,123 $ (97,404,968) $ 315,916,155
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Accounts payable
1,980,597 208,913 2,189,510 (208,913)
(D)
1,451,819
(528,778)
(I)
Accrued liabilities
4,704,137 4,704,137 4,704,137
Long term finance leases, current portion
47,719 47,719 47,719
Long term operating leases, current
portion
611,714 611,714 611,714
Total current liabilities
7,344,167 208,913 7,553,080 (737,691) 6,815,389
Deferred pension liability
733,778 733,778 733,778
Asset retirement obligation
977,635 977,635 977,635
Deferred revenue
1,500,000 1,500,000 1,500,000
Long term finance leases
33,677 33,677 33,677
Long term operating leases
661,643 661,643 661,643
Warrant liability
18,437,499 18,437,499 18,437,499
Total liabilities
11,250,900 18,646,412 29,897,312 (737,691) 29,159,621
Common stock subject to possible
redemption
287,500,000 287,500,000 (287,500,000)
(F)
Preferred stock
182,709,406 182,709,406 (182,709,406)
(E)
Stockholders’ equity (deficit):
Common stock
304 304 1,950
(A)
13,226
1,754
(H)
2,641
(F)
719
(J)
 
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Energy Vault
(Historical)
Novus
(Historical)
Combined
Pro Forma
Adjustments
Pro Forma
Combined
(2,467)
(K)
(249)
(L)
8,574
(E)
Class B common stock
719 719 (719)
(J)
Treasury stock
(2) (2) (2)
Additional paid-in capital
713,332 713,332 194,998,100
(A)
378,593,415
(18,120,430)
(C)
182,700,832
(E)
287,497,359
(F)
3,471,406
(G)
(25,958,926)
(I)
(246,706,753)
(K)
(1,754)
(H)
249
(L)
Retained earnings/(accumulated deficit)
(68,966,472) (18,120,430) (87,086,902) 18,120,430
(C)
(91,437,059)
(3,471,406)
(G)
(18,999,181)
(I)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(413,046) (413,046) (413,046)
Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)
(68,665,884) (18,119,711) (86,785,595) 373,542,129 286,756,534
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(DEFICIT)
$ 125,294,422 $ 288,026,701 $ 413,321,123 $ (97,404,968) $ 315,916,155
 
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UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED STATEMENT OF OPERATIONS
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2021
Energy Vault
(Historical)
Novus
(Historical)
Combined
(Historical)
Pro Forma
Adjustments
Pro Forma
Combined
Net Revenue
$ $ $ $ $
Cost of revenue
Gross profit
Formation costs
1,247,217 1,247,217 1,247,217
Selling and marketing expenses
845,302 845,302 332,578 (AA) 1,177,880
Research and development expenses
7,911,548 7,911,548 2,747,724 (AA) 10,659,272
General and administrative expenses
18,055,570 18,055,570 4,189,788 (AA) 41,244,539
18,999,181 (CC)
Inventory write-down
2,723,985 2,723,985 2,723,985
Operating loss
(29,536,405) (1,247,217) (30,783,622) (26,269,271) (57,052,894)
Other income (expense)
Interest earned on marketable securities held in Trust Account
15,823 15,823 (15,823) (BB)
Interest expense
(7,385) (7,385) (7,385)
Transaction costs incurred in connection with
warrant liability
(241,311) (241,311) (241,311)
Change in fair value of warrants
(1,865,833) (1,865,833) (1,865,833)
Other income (expense)
(1,793,671) (1,793,671) (1,793,671)
Loss before income taxes
(31,337,461) (3,338,538) (34,675,999) (26,285,094) (60,961,094)
Income taxes
(1,400) (1,400) (1,400)
Net loss attributable to common stockholders
$ (31,338,861) $ (3,338,538) $ (34,677,399) $ (26,285,094) $ (60,962,494)
Weighted average shares outstanding – Common
stock
1,886,798 132,254,992
Common stock – basic and diluted
$ (16.61) $ (0.46)
Weighted average shares outstanding – Class A stock
25,678,082
Class A common stock – basic and diluted
$ (0.10)
Weighted average shares outstanding – Class B stock
7,087,329
Class B common stock – basic and diluted
$ (0.10)
 
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NOTES TO UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION
1.
Basis of Presentation
The Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization in accordance with GAAP as Legacy Energy Vault has been determined to be the accounting acquirer, primarily due to the fact that shareholders of Legacy Energy Vault will continue to control Combined Company after the completion of the Business Combination. Under this method of accounting, Novus was treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes. Accordingly, the Business Combination was treated as the equivalent of Legacy Energy Vault issuing stock for the net assets of Novus, accompanied by a recapitalization. The net assets of the Novus are stated at historical cost, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded. Operations prior to the Business Combination are those of Legacy Energy Vault.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined balance sheet as of December 31, 2021 assumes that the Business Combination occurred on December 31, 2021. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2021 present pro forma effect to the Business Combination as if it had been completed on January 1, 2021.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined balance sheet as of December 31, 2021 has been prepared using, and should be read in conjunction with, the following:

Novus’s audited balance sheet as of December 31, 2021 and the related notes as of December 31, 2021; and

Legacy Energy Vault’s audited consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2021 and the related notes as of December 31, 2021.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2021 has been prepared using, and should be read in conjunction with, the following:

Novus’s audited statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2021 and the related notes; and

Legacy Energy Vault’s audited consolidated statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2021 and the related notes.
Management has made significant estimates and assumptions in its determination of the pro forma adjustments. As the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information has been prepared based on these preliminary estimates, the final amounts recorded may differ materially from the information presented.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information does not give effect to any anticipated synergies, operating efficiencies, tax savings, or cost savings that may be associated with the Business Combination.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information does not reflect the income tax effects of the pro forma adjustments as any change in the deferred tax balance would be offset by an increase in the valuation allowance given that Legacy Energy Vault incurred significant losses during the historical periods presented.
The pro forma adjustments reflecting the consummation of the Business Combination are based on certain currently available information and certain assumptions and methodologies that the Company believes are reasonable under the circumstances. The unaudited condensed pro forma adjustments, which are described in the accompanying notes, may be revised as additional information becomes available and is evaluated. Therefore, it is likely that the actual adjustments will differ from the pro forma adjustments and it is possible the difference may be material. The Company believes that the assumptions and methodologies provide a reasonable basis for presenting all of the significant effects of the Business Combination based on information available to management at this time and that the pro forma adjustments give appropriate effect to those assumptions and are properly applied in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information.
 
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The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information is not necessarily indicative of what the actual results of operations and financial position would have been had the Business Combination taken place on the dates indicated, nor are they indicative of the future consolidated results of operations or financial position of the Combined Company. They should be read in conjunction with the historical financial statements and notes thereto of Novus and Legacy Energy Vault.
2.
Accounting Policies
Upon consummation of the Business Combination, management has performed a comprehensive review of the Novus’s and Legacy Energy Vault’s accounting policies. Based on its initial analysis, management did not identify any differences in accounting policies that would have a material impact on the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information. As a result, the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information does not assume any differences in accounting policies.
3.
Adjustments to Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information has been prepared to illustrate the effect of the Business Combination and has been prepared for informational purposes only.
The following unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information has been prepared in accordance with Article 11 of Regulation S-X as amended by the final rule, Release No. 33-10786 “Amendments to Financial Disclosures about Acquired and Disposed Businesses.” Release No. 33-10786 replaces the existing pro forma adjustment criteria with simplified requirements to depict the accounting for the transaction (“Transaction Accounting Adjustments”) and present the reasonably estimable synergies and other transaction effects that have occurred or are reasonably expected to occur (“Management’s Adjustments”). The Company has elected not to present Management’s Adjustments and will only be presenting Transaction Accounting Adjustments in the following unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information
Legacy Energy Vault and Novus have not had any historical relationship prior to the Business Combination. Accordingly, no pro forma adjustments were required to eliminate activities between the companies.
The pro forma combined provision for income taxes does not necessarily reflect the amounts that would have resulted had the Combined Company filed consolidated income tax returns during the periods presented.
The pro forma basic and diluted earnings per share amounts presented in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined statements of operations are based upon the number of the Combined Company’s shares outstanding, assuming the Business Combination occurred on January 1, 2021.
Adjustments to Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Balance Sheet
The adjustments included in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined balance sheet as of December 31, 2021 are as follows:
Transaction Adjustments:
(A)
Reflects the issuance of 19,500,005 shares of Common Stock at a subscription price of $10.00 per share, pursuant to the Subscription Agreements, for proceeds of approximately $195.0 million. Issuance costs of $2.5 million in connection with the PIPE funding are included in the transaction costs discussed in (I) below.
(B)
Reflects the reclassification of $287.5 million of funds held in Novus’s Trust Account to cash and cash equivalents that becomes available for general corporate use by Combined Company which has been reduced by the redemptions discussed in (K) below.
(C)
Reflects the reclassification of historical accumulated deficit to additional paid in capital of $18.1 million.
 
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(D)
Reflects the settlement of Novus’s historical liabilities that were settled upon the close of the Business Combination.
(E)
Reflects the conversion of Legacy Energy Vault’s preferred stock into common stock in accordance with the Business Combination Agreement.
(F)
Reflects the reclassification of approximately $287.5 million from temporary equity to permanent equity.
(G)
Reflects the acceleration of certain Legacy Energy Vault stock-based compensation awards that vest upon the Closing of the Business Combination.
(H)
Represents recapitalization of Legacy Energy Vault equity and issuance of 20,577,500 of the Combined Company’s common stock (exclusive of 85,741,076 common stock shares issued in lieu of preferred stock conversion noted in Adjustment E) as the consideration for Business Combination, based on Exchange Ratio of 6.7735.
(I)
Represents transaction costs paid for the Business Combination, of which total approximately $45 million, including approximately $2.5 million related PIPE issuance costs. $26 million relates to equity issuance costs which is reflected as a reduction from additional paid-in capital and $19 million relates to the issuance costs relating to the liability-classified warrant instruments which is reflected as an increase in general and administrative expenses and accumulated deficit. Of these transaction costs, $3.6 million has been paid and $0.5 million has been accrued but not yet paid as of December 31, 2021 and are deferred and reflected as prepaid expenses and other assets and accounts payable, respectively, which upon the closure of the business combination, adjusted against additional paid in capital.
(J)
Represents reclassification of Novus Common Stock and Novus Class B Common Stock to Combined Company’s common stock.
(K)
Reflects the redemption of 24,670,922 of Novus’s Public Shares for aggregate redemption payments of $246.7 million allocated to common stock and additional paid-in capital using a par value of $0.0001 per share. As of the actual redemption date, the redemption price was $10.00 per share.
(L)
Reflects the forfeiture of Novus Founder Shares proportionate to redemption of cash from the Trust Account. Aggregate redemption payments of $246.7 million resulted in 2,494,229 of the Founder Shares forfeited, being 45% of the Founder Shares.
Adjustments to Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Statements of Operations
The pro forma adjustments included in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2021 are as follows:
(AA)
Reflects stock compensation expense related to certain Legacy Energy Vault stock-based compensation awards that vest upon the Closing of the Business Combination. The expense is reflected as if incurred on January 1, 2021, the date on which the Business Combination occurred for the purposes of the unaudited pro forma condensed combined statement of operations.
(BB)
Reflects elimination of interest income on the Trust Account.
(CC)
Reflects the payment of direct and incremental transaction costs in connection with the liability-classified warrant instruments of Novus, allocated on a relative fair value basis, for the year ended December 31, 2021. This is a non-recurring expense.
4.
Loss per Share
Represents the net loss per share calculated using the historical weighted average shares outstanding and the issuance of additional shares in connection with the Business Combination, assuming the shares were outstanding since January 1, 2021. As the Business Combination and related proposed equity
 
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transactions are being reflected as if they had occurred at the beginning of the periods presented, the calculation of weighted average shares outstanding for basic and diluted net loss per share assumes that the shares issuable relating to the Business Combination have been outstanding for the entire periods presented.
For the Year ended
December 31, 2021
Pro forma net loss
$ (60,962,494)
Weighted average shares outstanding of common stock
132,254,992
Net loss per share (Basic and Diluted) attributable to common stockholders(1)
$ (0.46)
Potential anti-dilutive instruments not considered
EV Earnout shares
9,000,000
Sponsor Earnout shares
1,617,188
Private warrants
5,166,666
Public warrants
9,583,333
EV Stock options
1,344,540
Total 26,711,727
(1)
Diluted loss per common stock is the same as basic loss per common stock for all periods presented because the effects of potentially dilutive items were anti-dilutive given the Combined Company’s net loss.
 
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis provide information which Energy Vault’s management believes is relevant to an assessment and understanding of Energy Vault’s consolidated results of operations and financial condition. The discussion should be read together with the audited consolidated financial statements and related notes that are included in this prospectus. The discussion and analysis should also be read together with the pro forma financial information as of and for the year ended December 31, 2021 and 2020. See the section entitled “Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information”. This discussion may contain forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Energy Vault’s actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under “Risk Factors” or in other parts of this prospectus.
Overview
Energy Vault develops sustainable, grid-scale energy storage solutions designed to advance the transition to a carbon free, resilient power grid. Energy Vault’s mission is to accelerate the decarbonization of our economy through the development of sustainable and economical energy storage technologies. To achieve this, Energy Vault is developing a proprietary gravity-based energy storage technology. Energy Vault is also designing proprietary energy management software based on artificial intelligence (AI), advanced optimization algorithms designed to control and optimize entire energy systems and a flexible energy storage integration platform suitable for storage technologies of many durations. Energy Vault’s product platform aims to help utilities, independent power producers, and large energy users significantly reduce their levelized cost of energy while maintaining power reliability.
Energy Vault was founded to address one of the greatest impediments to efficient renewable energy adoption — electricity storage. Renewable energy solutions struggle to replace fossil fuel power due to intermittency of the generation source and the lack of economic and sustainable energy storage solutions. Variable renewable energy sources such as wind and solar only produce energy when the sun is shining, or when the wind is blowing. Cost-effective energy storage is required to increase the amount of electricity that can be delivered to the grid from renewable energy sources in a balanced way that supports grid integration resiliency during low generation and eliminates overgeneration and the risk of changes in energy delivery, or ramp rate. Ramp rate is measured as the percentage of change in energy delivered per second. Power plants are designed to operate within a range where the amount of energy delivered to the grid must always equal the amount of energy that is being consumed. Blackouts and other issues can result when the balance is disrupted, when the energy levels fall out of the set range due to low generation periods or high energy demand periods. The system also may become overloaded because of abrupt changes in renewable energy generation. Energy storage helps to maintain the balance of energy delivery with energy consumed and to mitigate ramp rate to stay within range and avoid blackouts or other grid resiliency problems.
Energy Vault’s gravity-based solutions are based on the well-understood physics and mechanical engineering fundamentals of pumped hydroelectric energy storage, but replace water with custom-made composite blocks, or “mobile masses”, that can be made from low-cost and locally sourced materials, including local soil, mine tailings, coal combustion residuals (coal ash), and end-of-life decommissioned wind turbine blades.
Energy Vault’s gravity-based solutions build upon the core, proven energy storage technology of pumped hydroelectric energy storage and incorporates a simplified building design that is modular, flexible and not limited by the same geological constraints of pumped hydroelectric energy storage plants. Applying the fundamental principles of gravity and potential energy, Energy Vault’s EVx, and Energy Vault Resiliency Center (EVRC), solutions combine advanced materials science and proprietary machine-vision software to autonomously orchestrate the charge, storage, and discharge of electricity in grid-scale applications. To achieve this, Energy Vault synthesized technologies from four established industries: crane/elevators, shipping, motor/generator, and materials science. Combining potential and kinetic energy cycles, Energy Vault’s systems are automated with advanced computer control and machine vision software to create a gravity energy storage innovation designed to meet the market demand for 2-12 hours of storage duration. Energy Vault’s EVx and EVRC systems are designed to serve economically both higher power/shorter duration
 
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applications with ancillary services from 2-4 hours, while scaling to serve medium (4-10 hours) and long duration (ten or more hour) requirements.
The circular economy is a model of production and consumption, which involves sharing, leasing, reusing, repairing, refurbishing, and recycling existing materials and products as long as possible. In this way, the life cycle of products is extended to help minimize waste. Energy Vault has a unique approach to the circular economy which involves beneficial reuse of recyclable and energy waste materials into its sustainable production design.
In July 2020, Energy Vault completed mechanical construction of a five MW commercial demonstration unit (CDU) located in Arbedo-Castione, Switzerland based on the EV1 Tower design. In July 2020, the CDU was connected to the Swiss national electricity grid. Following the successful commercial scale deployment of the CDU, Energy Vault announced the new EVx platform in 2021 concurrent with its announcement of an investment in Energy Vault from Saudi Aramco Energy Ventures investment. EVx will offer performance enhancements designed to have 80%-85% round trip efficiency, a 35-year life, and a flexible, modular design that is 45% lower in height than the EV1 Tower design. To date, Energy Vault has not sold any EVx system.
In October 2021, Energy Vault entered into an Energy Storage System Agreement (Agreement) with DG Fuels LLC (DG Fuels). Under the terms of the Agreement, Energy Vault agreed to provide up to 1.6 gigawatt hours (GWh) of energy storage to support DG Fuels across multiple projects, the first of which is currently projected to commence construction in mid-2022 and is currently expected to be a 500 megawatt hour project (MWh) in Louisiana. The timing of the commencement of and payments under each project is subject to the execution of a sales agreement relating to such project and the revenue from each project will be dependent upon the agreed upon size of the project, and the timing of such project and the performance of DG Fuels. In addition, on October 29, 2021, Energy Vault agreed to invest $1 million in DG Fuels pursuant to a convertible promissory note with DG Fuels.
In November 2021, Energy Vault launched Energy Vault Solutions (EVS) to provide a technology neutral energy storage management and integration platform. The EVS platform enables the integration of different energy assets and their economic dispatching by using artificial intelligence (AI) and software optimization algorithms.
In December 2021, Energy Vault entered into a Memorandum of Understanding with BHP Manganese Australia Pty. Ltd. (“BHP”) focused on studying the application of our technology to support power supply and energy storage at certain BHP operations while exploring opportunities for new applications relevant to BHP’s business. Furthermore, in December 2021, we and Sun Metals Corporation Pty. Ltd. (Sun Metals), a wholly owned subsidiary of Korea Zinc Co., Ltd. (Korea Zinc), entered into a non-binding strategic partnership agreement for renewable energy storage. The partnership supports Korea Zinc’s strategy to decarbonize their refining and smelting operations focused initially under Sun Metals. There can be no assurance that a definitive agreement with BHP or Korea Zinc or its affiliates will be executed or that we will generate any revenue from either collaboration.
In February 2022, Energy Vault, announced a License and Royalty agreement for renewable energy storage with Atlas Renewable LLC (Atlas Renewable) and their majority investor China Tianying Inc. , an international environmental management and waste remediation corporation engaged in smart urban environmental services, resource recycling and recovery, and zero-carbon clean energy technologies. The agreement supports the deployment of Energy Vault’s proprietary gravity energy storage technology and energy management software platform within mainland China and the Special Administrative Regions (SAR) of Hong Kong and Macau. In addition, Atlas Renewable has agreed to pay $50 million in IP licensing fees, to be paid in 2022, for use and deployment of Energy Vault’s gravity energy storage technology.
The Energy Vault sales model is designed to serve the full scope of the addressable market by offering its energy storage system customers a choice of two programs. Under the first program, Storage Asset Owners, the customer owns both the energy storage system and the service, that the system provides (i.e. the energy storage and dispatch of electricity). Energy Vault anticipates that this program will constitute the substantial majority of future sales and that utility companies, independent power producers and industrial customers that consume large amounts of power or are making a transition to 24/7 renewable power may be interested
 
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in being Storage Asset Owners. Under the second program, Storage Service Customers, customers such as community choice aggregators, independent power producers and utility companies would sign long-term power purchase agreements and/or tolling agreements to purchase power on a fixed dollar per kilowatt monthly or hourly basis while Energy Vault and potentially other equity co-investors retain an ownership interest in the system. In this business model, power could also be sold on a merchant market basis to take advantage of large changes in “time of day” pricing of electricity.
Business Combination and Public Company Costs
On the Closing Date, Legacy Energy Vault merged with NCCII Merger Corp., with Legacy Energy Vault surviving as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Novus Capital Corporation II (“Novus”), which changed its name to “Energy Vault Holdings, Inc.”
The Business Combination will be accounted as a reverse recapitalization. Legacy Energy Vault will be the deemed acquiror for accounting purposes and the Energy Vault Holdings, Inc. will be the successor SEC registrant, meaning that Legacy Energy Vault’s financial statements for previous periods will be disclosed in Energy Vault Holdings, Inc.’s future periodic reports filed with the SEC. Under this method of accounting, Novus will be treated as the acquired company for financial statement reporting purposes. In connection with the Business Combination, there was an increase in cash of approximately $190.8 million, net of transaction costs, including proceeds from the sale of the PIPE shares.
As a result of the Business Combination, Energy Vault has become the successor to a public reporting company, which will require the hiring of additional personnel and implementation of procedures and processes to comply with public company regulatory requirements, including the Exchange Act, and customary practices. We expect to incur additional annual expenses as a public company for, among other things, directors’ and officers’ liability insurance, director fees and additional internal and external accounting, legal and administrative resources, including increased audit and legal fees.
Key Factors and Trends Affecting our Business
We believe that our performance and future success depend upon several factors that present significant opportunities for us but also pose risks and challenges including those discussed below and in the section of this prospectus titled “Risk Factors.”
Product Development and Deployment Plan
Energy Vault intends to leverage its technology, competitive strengths, and remediation opportunity to establish its EVx and EVRC systems as viable solutions for short, medium and long-term renewable energy storage solutions.
Our cost projections are heavily dependent upon raw materials (such as steel), equipment (such as motors, inverters and power electronic devices) and technical and construction service providers (such as engineering, procurement, construction firms). The global supply chain, on which Energy Vault relies, has been significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and other economic uncertainties, resulting in potential significant delays and cost fluctuations, particularly with respect to microchips and many other raw materials that are within the motor and power electronic supply chains. These future timing and financial developments may impact Energy Vault’s performance from both a deployment and cost perspective.
Currently, the only operating energy storage system utilizing Energy Vault’s technologies is the CDU which Energy Vault continues to use for testing and software improvement. Building on its experience with the CDU, Energy Vault has designed its EVx system. The EVx platform is designed to be a scalable, modular product line starting from 40MWh to multi-GWh to address grid resiliency needs in shorter durations while supporting longer duration and power needs in the event of power outages or powering industrial processes over long periods. Using the EVx design as a building block, the EVRC can be custom designed and built out in 10MWh increments that can scale to multi-GW-hour storage capacity to meet the energy storage needs for grid-scale deployment. There are no commercial installations of Energy Vault’s EVx system or EVRC platform at this time.
 
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Energy Storage Industry
Our future revenue growth will be directly tied to the continued adoption of renewable energy storage systems. As the sector is relatively nascent, we expect the markets for renewable energy storage to increase. Furthermore, our systems rely on an alternative technology to the dominant and accepted storage technologies such as lithium-ion, flow batteries and thermal storage. Our business depends on the acceptance of our products, including the EVx systems, in the marketplace. Even if renewable energy and energy storage become more widely adopted than they have been to date, potential customers may choose energy storage products from our competitors that are based on technologies other than our gravity-based energy storage technology.
COVID-19
The spread of the COVID-19 has caused an economic downturn on a global scale, as well as significant volatility in the financial markets. Government reactions to the public health crisis with mitigation measures have created significant uncertainties in the U.S. and global economies. The COVID-19 pandemic had caused delays in the construction of the CDU in Switzerland due to Government-mandated temporary stay-at-home and quarantine orders; however, it did not significantly impact Energy Vault’s other core functions such as research and development and capital raising. Due to the pandemic related uncertainties in global markets and specific restrictions announced by The Canton Government of Ticino in March and April 2020, Energy Vault implemented actions to reduce its operating expense run rate through temporary salary reductions and other discretionary expense reductions. CDU component deliveries into the testing site in Arbedo Castione were also delayed due to the Swiss border being closed and due to the worksite being shut in compliance with the March 2020 lockdown. Furthermore, the Canton Health and Safety Department of Ticino, Switzerland ordered the hiring of a Health and Safety Manager in order to resume onsite operations of the CDU. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts Energy Vault’s business, operations and financial results will depend on numerous evolving factors that management may not be able to accurately predict. The ultimate outcome of these matters is uncertain and, accordingly, the impact on our financial condition or results of operations is also uncertain.
Components of Results of Operations
Revenue
We have not recognized any revenue for the years ended December 31, 2021, and 2020. We expect to earn revenue from the sale of energy storage solutions, under four complementary sales programs based on customer preferences. Under the first program, Storage Asset Owners, the customer owns both the energy storage system and the service, that the system provides (i.e., the energy storage and dispatch of electricity). Energy Vault anticipates that this program will constitute the substantial majority of future sales and that utility companies, independent power producers and industrial customers that consume large amounts of power or are making a transition to 24/7 renewable power may be interested in being Storage Asset Owners. Under the second program, Storage Service Customers, customers such as community choice aggregators, independent power producers and utility companies would sign long-term power purchase agreements and/or tolling agreements to purchase power on a fixed dollar per kilowatt monthly or hourly basis while Energy Vault and potentially other equity co-investors would retain an ownership interest in the system. Under the third program, the customer would enter into a Software as a Service (SaaS) agreement with Energy Vault, and is granted access to Energy Vault’s Energy Management System that helps the economic dispatching of its energy storage and generation assets. Under the fourth program, the Company enters into intellectual property licenses and royalties agreement associated with our energy storage technologies. We intend to finalize our revenue recognition policies relating to the programs once we finalize definitive agreements with our future customers.
Operating expenses
Sales and marketing expenses
Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of expenses relating to professional service costs, trade shows, marketing and sales related promotional materials, public relations expenses, website operating and
 
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maintenance costs, and stock-based compensation expenses for marketing, sales personnel, and related support teams. We expect that our sales and marketing expenses will increase over time as we continue to hire additional personnel to support the overall growth in our business.
Research and development expenses
Research and development expenses consist primarily of internal and external expenses incurred in connection with our research activities and development programs that include materials costs directly related to the product development, testing and evaluation costs, construction costs including labor and transportation of material, overhead related costs and other direct expenses consisting of stock-based compensation and consulting expenses relating to study of product safety, reliability and development. We expect our research and development costs to increase for the foreseeable future as we continue to invest in these activities to achieve our product design, engineering, and development roadmap.
General and administrative expenses
General and administrative expenses consist of information technology expenses, legal and professional fees, travel cost, personnel-related expenses for our corporate, executive, finance, and other administrative functions including expenses for professional and contract services. Personnel related expenses consist of salaries, benefits, and stock-based compensation expense. To a lesser extent, general and administrative expense includes depreciation, insurance costs, rent, office expenses and maintenance costs. We expect our general and administrative expenses to increase in the foreseeable future as we hire personnel to meet the growth of our business, and as a result of operating as a public company, including compliance with the rules and regulations of the SEC, legal, audit, additional insurance expenses, investor relations fees and other administrative and professional services.
Inventory write-down
Energy Vault began building of a prototype of the EV1 in March 2020, resulting in the CDU, an EV1 Tower, which was connected to the Swiss national grid in July 2020. Thereafter, through design improvements and refinements of its technology, Energy Vault formally launched the new EVx platform in 2021. The inventory write-down reported for the year ended December 31, 2021, is attributable to losses incurred due to a damaged component relating to the CDU. Additionally, other components, which were not previously installed, remain in prepaid expenses and other current assets and were adjusted to their estimated net realizable value as Energy Vault intends to eventually sell them. As the EVx system is being developed, the remaining components of the CDU have been reclassified as a demonstration and testing equipment in plant and equipment category of the consolidated balance sheet.
Other income (expense)
Change in fair value of derivative
The gain/(loss) on revaluation of embedded derivatives consists of periodic fair value adjustments associated with the Series B Convertible Preferred Stock issuance right derivative liability.
Interest expense
Interest expense consists primarily of interest related to finance leases and non-cash interest expense related to the discount on the issuance of convertible notes.
Other income (expense), net
Other income (expense), net consists primarily of interest income relating to our investment in money market funds as well as gains and losses related to foreign exchange transactions.
 
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Results of operations
Comparison of the year ended December 31, 2021 to year ended December 31, 2020
The following table sets forth our historical consolidated operating results for the periods indicated, and the changes between periods:
Year ended December 31,
2021
2020
Changes
Operating Expenses:
Sales and marketing
845,302 311,135 534,167 171.7%
Research and development
7,911,548 8,519,541 (607,993) (7.1)%
General and administrative
18,055,570 5,674,756 12,380,814 218.2%
Inventory write-down
2,723,985 2,723,985 N/A
Total operating expense
29,536,405 14,505,432 15,030,973 103.6%
Loss from operations
(29,536,405) (14,505,432) (15,030,973) 103.6%
Other income (expenses):
Change in fair value of derivative
(11,923,000) 11,923,000 N/A
Interest expense
(7,385) (128,134) (120,749) (94.2)%
Other income (expense), net
(1,793,671) 2,386,395 (4,180,066) (175.2)%
Total other expenses, net
(1,801,056) (9,664,739) 7,863,683 (81.4)%
Net loss before income tax
(31,337,461) (24,170,171) (7,167,290) 29.7%
Operating expenses
Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing expenses increased by $534,167 or 171.7%, to $845,302 for the year ended December 31, 2021 from $311,135 for the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase resulted primarily from an increased focus on business development, marketing, trade shows and public relations related spending and to a lesser extent, attributable to the increases in stock-based compensation expense due to expanded headcount, particularly at the senior levels.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses decreased by $607,993 or 7.1%, to $7,911,548 for the year ended December 31, 2021 from $8,519,541 for the year ended December 31, 2020. The decrease resulted primarily from the delayed spending on the development of the EVx in 2021 compared to the larger spending in study related to seismic research of the EV1 CDU prototype system conducted during 2020 to test product stability in different terrains.
General and Administrative
General and administrative expenses increased by $12,380,814 or 218.2% to $18,055,570 for the year ended December 31, 2021 from $5,674,756 for the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase resulted primarily from an increase in depreciation on property and equipment, and an increase in payroll and related costs due to the increase in Energy Vault’s headcount. Further, the increase is attributable to external costs such as accounting, finance, tax compliance, auditing, legal, and other professional costs associated with preparing to become a public reporting entity.
Inventory write-down
Inventory write-down was $2,723,985 for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to $0 for the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase was due to the write-down of components of the CDU that
 
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were damaged. This write-off and other related costs have been partially offset by an insurance claim received by Energy Vault against the claim filed for damaged components. Additionally, other components, which were not previously installed, were reclassed into prepaid expenses and other current asset at their estimated net realizable value, as Energy Vault intends to sell them.
Other income (expense)
Change in fair value of derivative
Loss on revaluation of fair value adjustments decreased by $11,923,000 to $0 for the year ended December 31, 2021 from $11,923,000 for the year ended December 31, 2020. The derivative liability expired in June 2021 without exercise, resulting in the fair value of the derivative liability becoming $0 for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Interest Expense
Interest expense decreased by $120,749, or 94.2%, to $7,385 for the year ended December 31, 2021 from $128,134 for the year ended December 31, 2020. The higher interest expense in 2020 was primarily due to interest expense on Series B-1 convertible notes. These notes got converted to Series B-1 preferred stock in December 2020. This decrease was partially offset by increase in finance lease obligations.
Other Income (expense), net
Other expense was $1,793,671 for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to other income of $2,386,395 for the year ended December 31, 2020. The change resulted primarily from fluctuations in foreign currency transaction gain and losses.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Since inception, we have financed our operations primarily through the issuance and sale of equity, debt, convertible notes and preferred stock. We have not generated any cash from our operations.
During August and September 2021, we entered into financing arrangements with a large institutional investor and existing stockholders consisting of the sale of 2,182,515 shares of our Series C Preferred Stock at a price of $49.0258 per share for net proceeds of approximately $105.4 million.
On February 11, 2022, the Business Combination with Novus was consummated. The Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization. Under this method of accounting, Novus was treated as the acquired company for financial statement reporting purposes. The most significant change in the Combined Company’s reported financial position and results was an increase in cash of $190.8 million, net of transaction costs. We believe that the proceeds of the Business Combination, including the proceeds from the sale of the PIPE Shares, without regard to any cash proceeds we may receive upon the exercise for cash of our Warrants, will be adequate to fund operations, manufacturing, research and development, administration as well as sales and marketing costs for at least the next twelve months. The exercise price for any of our Public Warrants and our Private Warrants is $11.50 per share, subject to certain specified adjustments. To the extent that the price of our Common Stock exceeds $11.50 per share, it is more likely that our warrantholders will exercise their warrants. To the extent that the price of our common stock declines, including by declining beneath $11.50 per share, it is less likely that our warrantholders will exercise their warrants. In addition, should we enter into definitive collaboration and/or joint venture agreements or engage in business combinations in the future, we may be required to seek additional financing.
We may continue to incur additional losses for the next several years, and we may seek additional capital through equity and/or debt financings depending on market conditions. If we are required to raise additional funds by issuing equity securities, dilution to stockholders would result. Any equity securities issued may also provide for rights, preferences or privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock. If we raise funds by issuing debt securities, these debt securities would have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of common stock. The terms of debt securities or borrowings could impose significant
 
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restrictions on our operations. The credit market and financial services industry have in the past, and may in the future, experience periods of uncertainty that could impact the availability and cost of equity and debt financing.
In March 2020, we received $518,645 in aggregate loan proceeds under the Swiss Government COVID-19 Financial Assistance Program. The note did not bear interest and matured in 60 months from the date of issuance. The note was repaid in full on September 8, 2021.
In May 2020, we received $220,020 in aggregate loan proceeds pursuant to the Paycheck Protection Program established under the CARES Act (the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act) of 2020. The loan accrued interest at the rate of 1% per annum. The loan was repaid in full on September 3, 2021.
As of December 31, 2021, we had $105,124,886 of cash and cash equivalents. As reflected in our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus, we had an accumulated deficit as of December 31, 2021, and a net loss and net cash used in operating activities for the reporting period then ended. Energy Vault expects to incur losses in the foreseeable future due to its on-going research and development activities and may require additional sources of capital.
Cash Flows
The following table summarizes cash flows from operating, investing, and financing activities for the periods indicated.
Year Ended December 31,
2021
2020
Net cash used in operating activities
$ (22,065,930) $ (16,700,304)
Net cash used in investing activities
(1,169,404) (1,754,504)
Net cash provided by financing activities
116,377,818 15,641,814
Effects of exchange rate changes on cash
1,931,251 (1,795,567)
Net increase (decrease) in cash
95,073,735 (4,608,561)
Cash, beginning of year
10,051,151 14,659,712
Cash, end of year
$ 105,124,886 $ 10,051,151
Operating Activities
Net cash used in operating activities was $22,065,930 for the year ended December 31, 2021, which principally comprised a net loss of $31,338,861 offset by a non-cash increase in inventory write-down by $3,225,142 and other non-cash expense increases of $3,494,120. Net changes in operating assets and liabilities used $2,553,669 of cash primarily due to increase in accounts payable, accrued expenses, inventory, and payment of operating lease partially offset by the decrease in prepaid expense and other current assets.
Net cash used in operating activities was $16,700,304 for the year ended December 31, 2020, which principally comprised a net loss of $24,171,001 offset by a change in fair value of a derivative liability of $11,923,000 and other non-cash expenses of $874,213. Net changes in operating assets and liabilities used $5,326,516 of cash primarily due to an increase in inventory, prepaid expenses and other current assets and offset by an increase in accounts payable and accrued expenses.
Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities was $1,169,404 for the year ended December 31, 2021, which comprised of $1,000,000 for purchases of convertible notes and $169,404 for purchase of property and equipment.
Net cash used in investing activities was $1,754,504 for the year ended December 31, 2020, which comprised purchases of property and equipment.
Financing Activities
Net cash provided by financing activities was $116,377,818 for the year ended December 31, 2021,which comprised of $15,294,997 proceeds from the issuance of Series B-1 preferred stock, net of issuance costs,
 
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$105,372,727 proceeds from the issuance of Series C preferred stock, net of issuance costs, and $130,354 proceeds from issuance of shares being offset by a payment of $52,924 in principal towards long-term lease obligations, $765,070 towards repayment of debt, $3,592,307 towards merger related expenses and $9,959 toward purchase of treasury stock
Net cash provided by financing activities was $15,641,814 for the year ended December 31, 2020, which was comprised of $8,605,850 from the issuance of debt and $7,605,005 from the issuance of shares offset by the payment of $569,041 in principal towards long-term lease obligations.
Contractual Obligations, Commitments and Contingencies
Our contractual obligations and other commitments as of December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 consisted of preferred stock, notes payable, operating and finance lease commitments and deferred pension obligations. See Note 11, 12, and 16 to the audited consolidated financial statements of Energy Vault included elsewhere in this prospectus.
Off-Balance Sheet Commitments and Arrangements
Energy Vault has not entered into off-balance sheet arrangements, as defined in the rules and regulations of the SEC as of December 31, 2021.
Critical Accounting Policies and Use of Estimates
Our financial statements are prepared in conformity with GAAP. In preparing our financial statements, we make assumptions, judgments, and estimates based on historical experience and various other factors that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates under different assumptions and conditions.
Our significant accounting policies are described in Note 2 to the audited consolidated financial statements of Energy Vault included elsewhere in this prospectus, and we believe that the accounting policies discussed below are critical to understanding its historical and future performance as these policies involve a greater degree of judgment and complexity.
Stock-Based Compensation
Accounting for stock-based compensation requires us to make a number of judgments, estimates and assumptions. If any of the estimates prove to be inaccurate, Energy Vault’s net loss and operating results could be affected adversely.
The stock-based compensation arrangements are accounted for in accordance with ASC Topic 718, “Share Based Payments”. Compensation expense is recognized over the requisite service period (usually the vesting period) on a straight-line basis and adjusted for actual forfeitures of unvested awards as they occur.
Stock awards that vest solely based on a service condition are measured based on the estimated fair values of the awards as of the grant date using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, which is impacted by the following assumptions:

Expected Term — The expected term represents the period that Energy Vault’s awards granted are expected to be outstanding and is determined based upon the simplified method, as we do not have sufficient historical information to develop reasonable expectations about future exercise patterns and post-vesting employment termination behavior.

Expected Volatility — Since we were previously privately held and did not have any trading history for our common stock, the expected volatility was estimated based on the average volatility for comparable publicly traded companies over a period equal to the expected term of the stock award grants.

Risk-Free Interest Rate — We use the U.S. Treasury yield for our risk-free interest rate that corresponds with the expected term.
 
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Expected Dividend — Energy Vault has never paid dividends on its common stock and has no plans to pay dividends in the foreseeable future. Therefore, an expected dividend yield of zero was used.
The grant date fair value of our Common Stock was determined using valuation methodologies which utilize certain assumptions, including probability weighting of events, volatility, time to liquidation, a risk-free interest rate, and an assumption for a discount for lack of marketability (Level 3 inputs).
Defined Benefit Pension Obligation
Energy Vault’s wholly owned subsidiary in Switzerland has a defined benefit pension obligation covering retirement and other long-term benefits for the local employees. The plan is a statutory requirement in accordance with local regulations which is accounted for and disclosed in accordance with the provisions of GAAP relating to the accounting for pension plans. These GAAP provisions require the use of assumptions, such as the discount rate for liabilities and long-term rate of return on assets, in determining the projected benefit obligation, fair value of plan assets and an underfunded net benefit obligation.
Emerging Growth Company Accounting Election
We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act and have elected to take advantage of the benefits of the extended transition period for new or revised financial accounting standards, although we may decide to early adopt such new or revised accounting standards to the extent permitted by such standards. We expect to use this extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and non-public companies until the earlier of the date we (i) are no longer an emerging growth company or (ii) affirmatively and irrevocably opt out of the extended transition period provided in the JOBS Act. This may make it difficult or impossible to compare our financial results with the financial results of another public company that is either not an emerging growth company or is an emerging growth company that has chosen not to take advantage of the extended transition period exemptions because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.
Recently Adopted and Issued Accounting Pronouncements
Recently issued and adopted/unadopted accounting pronouncements are described in Note 2 to the audited consolidated financial statements of Energy Vault included elsewhere in this prospectus.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Market risk represents the risk of loss that may impact our financial position because of adverse changes in financial market prices and rates.
Foreign Currency Risk
Nearly all of our letters of intent are denominated in U.S. dollars, and certain of our definitive agreements could be denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, including the Euro, the Australian dollar, the Brazilian real and the Saudi riyal. A strengthening of the U.S. dollar could increase the cost of our solutions to our international customers, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations. In addition, an increasing portion of our operating expenses is incurred outside the United States, is denominated in foreign currencies, such as the euro and the Swiss franc, and is subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. If we become more exposed to currency fluctuations and are not able to successfully hedge against the risks associated with currency fluctuations, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
Inflation Risk
Our operations could be adversely impacted by inflation, primarily from higher material, labor, and construction costs. While it is difficult to measure the impact of inflation for such estimates accurately, we believe, if our costs are affected due to significant inflationary pressures, we may not be able to fully offset higher costs through price increases or other corrective measures, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
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BUSINESS
Overview
We develop sustainable and flexible grid-scale energy storage solutions and energy management systems to orchestrate the optimal economic dispatching of multiple energy assets, designed to advance the transition to a carbon free, resilient power grid. Our mission is to accelerate the decarbonization of our economy through the development of sustainable and economical energy storage technologies. To achieve this, we are developing a proprietary gravity-based energy storage technology. We are also designing proprietary energy management software based on artificial intelligence (AI), advanced optimization algorithms designed to control and optimize entire energy systems and a flexible energy storage integration platform suitable for storage technologies of many durations. Our product platform aims to help utilities, independent power producers, and large energy users significantly reduce their levelized cost of energy while maintaining power reliability.
Energy Vault was founded to address one of the greatest impediments to efficient renewable energy adoption — electricity storage. Renewable energy solutions struggle to replace fossil fuel power due to intermittency of the generation source and the lack of economic and sustainable energy storage solutions. Variable renewable energy sources such as wind and solar only produce energy when the sun is shining, or when the wind is blowing. Cost-effective energy storage is required to increase the amount of electricity that can be delivered to the grid from renewable energy sources in a balanced way that supports grid integration resiliency during low generation and eliminates overgeneration and the risk of changes in energy delivery, or ramp rate. Ramp rate is measured as the percentage of change in energy delivered per second. Power plants are designed to operate within a range where the amount of energy delivered to the grid must always equal the amount of energy that is being consumed. Blackouts and other issues can result when the balance is disrupted, when the energy levels fall out of the set range due to low generation periods or high energy demand periods. The system also may become overloaded because of abrupt changes in renewable energy generation. Energy storage helps to maintain the balance of energy delivery with energy consumed and to mitigate ramp rate to stay within range and avoid blackouts or other grid resiliency problems.
Our gravity-based solutions are based on the well-understood physics and mechanical engineering fundamentals of pumped hydroelectric energy storage, but replace water with custom-made composite blocks, or “mobile masses”, that can be made from low-cost and locally sourced materials, including local soil, mine tailings, coal combustion residuals (coal ash), and end-of-life decommissioned wind turbine blades.
Our gravity-based solutions build upon the core, proven energy storage technology of pumped hydroelectric energy storage and incorporates a simplified building design that is modular, flexible, and not limited by the same geological constraints of pumped hydroelectric energy storage plants. Applying the fundamental principles of gravity and potential energy, Our EVx and Energy Vault Resiliency Center (EVRC) solutions combine advanced materials science and proprietary machine-vision software to autonomously orchestrate the charge, storage, and discharge of electricity in grid-scale applications. To achieve this, we synthesized technologies from four established industries: crane/elevators, shipping, motor/generator, and materials science. Combining potential and kinetic energy cycles, our systems are automated with advanced computer control and machine vision software to create a gravity energy storage innovation designed to meet the market demand for 2-12 hours of storage duration. Our EVx and EVRC systems are designed to serve economically both higher power/shorter duration applications with ancillary services2 from 2-4 hours, while scaling to serve medium (4-10 hours) and long duration (ten or more hour) requirements.
Our storage, when combined with low-cost wind and photovoltaic solar, is designed to achieve an attractive levelized cost of energy delivered. Our EVx and EVRC systems can be deployed as stand-alone storage connected to the grid or alongside any generation source, such as wind or solar farms. We are focused on enabling cost-effective renewable power on a global scale at a lower cost than existing, fully-depreciated fossil fuel plants and with high sustainability standards. The potential energy of the system can be stored with
2 Ancillary services as defined by the United States Federal Energy Regulatory Commission are those services necessary to support the transmission of electric power from seller to purchaser, given the obligations of control areas and transmitting utilities within those control areas, to maintain reliable operations of the interconnected transmission system.
 
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the composite blocks in the raised position for unlimited periods of time and with nearly zero expected loss of the storage capacity over time. Additionally, we are uniquely positioned to work with traditional fossil fuel companies to help utilities and coal plant operators make a more cost-effective transition to green power by utilizing energy waste materials such as coal ash in the production of the mobile masses that charge our gravity energy storage solutions.
The circular economy is a model of production and consumption, which involves sharing, leasing, reusing, repairing, refurbishing, and recycling existing materials and products as long as possible. In this way, the life cycle of products is extended to help minimize waste. We have a unique approach to the circular economy which involves beneficial reuse of recyclable and energy waste materials into its sustainable production design.
In July 2020, we completed mechanical construction of a five MW commercial demonstration unit (CDU) located in Arbedo-Castione, Switzerland based on the EV1 Tower design. In July 2020, the CDU was connected to the Swiss national electricity grid. Following the successful commercial scale deployment of the CDU, we announced the new EVx platform in June 2021 concurrent with our announcement of an investment from Saudi Aramco Energy Ventures. EVx will offer performance enhancements designed to have 80%-85% round trip efficiency, a 35-year life, and a flexible, modular design that is 45% lower in height than the EV1 Tower design. Round trip efficiency is the ratio between the amount of energy that is delivered from the charged system and the amount of energy that was used to charge the system, expressed as a percentage. For example, a round trip efficiency of 80% means that a system is able to deliver 80% of the energy that was used to charge the system to the end user. It is important to note that no energy storage system is 100% efficient and that there is always a loss of energy in the storage/delivery process.
In November 2021, we launched Energy Vault Solutions (EVS) to provide customers with (i) a technology neutral platform for the integration and delivery of multiple energy storage technologies, in addition to our proprietary gravity storage technology, and (ii) an advanced software energy management system, using artificial intelligence, predictive analytics and software optimization algorithms, to orchestrate the ideal economic dispatching of energy generation and storage assets as well electrolizers and fuel cells. In this way, EVS is expected to be offered as software as a service, bundled with the sales of energy storage assets, or as stand-alone offering and energy storage technologies license.
Industry Overview
The global increase in renewable energy generation is driving demand for energy storage. Key drivers of the renewable energy market include the need to decrease reliance on fossil fuels given ongoing growth in harmful CO2 emissions and to accelerate the shift to now affordable renewable sources that require storage to manage the intermittency of renewable generation.
Demand for clean energy is growing globally, with renewables expected to generate 90% of total energy by 2050. Energy storage deployments are expected to grow to 300 gigawatt hours by the year 2025 and at a 20% compounded annual growth rate to approximately 830 gigawatt hours by 2030. Both governmental mandates and companies focused on reducing energy use, cost and emissions will help drive the shift to renewable sources of power. We are well-positioned to capitalize on this opportunity through competitive pricing, scalability, and environmentally friendly attributes of its energy storage solutions.
Many utilities around the world have publicly stated their carbon emissions reduction and sustainability goals, which incorporate strategies to support a circular economy. Legacy power generation and renewable technologies also have specific challenges to address such as limited availability of required geology, supply chain demand issues, environmental liability, and safety risk.
The renewable energy storage market is currently dominated by pumped storage hydropower, a type of hydroelectric energy storage, which has an approximate 90% (95% in the US) market share of all utility-scale storage. While pumped hydro storage has proven to have long-life cycle and quick response times to deploy energy when needed, pumped hydro energy storage solutions require large amounts of land, need to be located near a water source, are not scalable once built, and often use carbon-intensive materials that are harmful to the environment. Pumped hydroelectric energy storage is further challenged to meet the
 
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expected market growth as there are few remaining sites available with naturally occurring low and high reservoirs, and the cost and environmental impact of creating man-made reservoirs is high.
Lithium-ion battery storage currently has an approximate 5% market share. Lithium-ion battery storage, which is also used in consumer products and electric vehicles, is a widely accepted form of utility scale energy storage. However, some chemistry of lithium-ion battery technology requires scarce raw materials (such as cobalt) for battery production which can be subject to periodic supply chain challenges and carry a high-carbon footprint for shipping and production. In addition, battery chemistries degrade over time, contain hazardous materials, are associated with disposal issues and pose safety and fire risks.
Certain other forms of renewable energy storage technology, including geothermal and flow batteries, require relatively high capital investment and have high operating costs, have relatively lower efficiency levels, are not modular, and have geological constraints. Other mechanical methods, such as compressed air, fly wheels, and other gravity-based solutions, generally have high carbon footprints, are dependent on specific land topography and/or underground geology, have lower efficiency, have high operating costs, and are not scalable or modular.
Our Solutions
Our energy storage and software solutions will allow utilities, independent power producers, and large energy users to manage their power portfolios and efficiently dispatch power. Importantly, given the intermittency of variable renewable energy sources such as wind and solar generation, our system will complement variable renewable energy generation by allowing for charging and storage of energy during periods of high generation, and dispatch of that stored energy during periods of high demand and when energy is not otherwise being generated. Our solutions can act as a stand-alone energy storage solution to achieve power reserves for any energy generation source. Our gravity-based storage systems do not rely on the land topography or geology of pumped-hydro, can be built to meet local building code requirements, and can either be co-located with generation sources, or connected to the grid as stand-alone storage to support dispatchability, grid stability, and to help defer grid upgrade investments.
Our gravity-based systems are designed using proprietary crane/elevators and motor/generator infrastructure to orchestrate autonomously balanced net energy storage and energy distribution by using motor/generators to lift and lower mobile masses. When excess energy is on the grid, the systems’ motors will lift the mobile masses to an elevated position where they store potential energy. When energy is needed, the motors act as generators and the system will discharge electricity generated from the kinetic energy of the controlled gravitational lowering of the mobile masses. Our EVx modular solution is economically viable for both short (2-4 hours), medium (4-10 hours) and long (ten or more hours) durations and is the building block for the EVRC platform that can be built out in 10MWh increments that can scale to multi-GW-hour storage capacity.
EV1 Tower — First Generation Design
We introduced the first generation EV1 six-arm crane tower design. In July 2020, we completed mechanical construction of the first-of-its-kind, commercial demonstration (CDU) unit located in Arbedo-Castione, Switzerland. The system was connected to the Swiss national electricity grid and is being utilized for continued testing and software improvements.
 
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[MISSING IMAGE: tm225795d14-ph_evitower4c.jpg]
Figure 1. Our Commercial Demonstration Unit located in Arbedo-Castione, Switzerland.
EVx Platform
We have designed our EVx system building on our experience with the CDU.. We have worked with several of the largest utilities and energy companies in the world to optimize its gravity energy storage platform for improved flexibility and to address potential customers’ evolving needs for storage duration and operational characteristics. The new platform is designed to be up to 45% lower in height than the EV1 and utilizes the same mobile mass weights that can be made from local soil, waste, and remediation material for beneficial re-use as energy storage. The EVx platform is designed to be a scalable, modular product line starting from 40MWh to multi-GWh to address grid resiliency needs in shorter durations while supporting longer duration and power needs in the event of power outages or powering industrial processes over long periods
Energy Vault Resiliency Center
Our Energy Vault Resiliency Center is a scalable, gigawatt hour scale product line designed to address grid resiliency needs to manage energy disruptive climate events such as wildfire or extreme weather. The EVx is the building block of the modular 10MWh infrastructure used to build the EVRC level capacity system. The EVRC is a larger capacity system than the EVx system and is designed for grid resiliency. Using the EVx design as a building block, the EVRC can be custom designed and built out in 10MWh increments that can scale to multi-GW-hour storage capacity to meet the energy storage needs for grid-scale deployment.
Energy Vault Solutions
Energy Vault Solutions (EVS) expands upon Energy Vault’s sustainable energy storage technology which is designed to advance the global transition to a carbon free, resilient power grid. Through EVS, Energy Vault aims to enhance its solutions and services to help utilities, independent power producers and large industrial energy users manage both short and long duration energy storage needs to reduce their levelized cost of energy while maintaining power reliability.
 
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EVS is being designed to provide customers with (i) a technology neutral platform for the integration and delivery of multiple energy storage technologies, in addition to our proprietary gravity storage technology, and (ii) an advanced software energy management system, using artificial intelligence, predictive analytics and software optimization algorithms, to orchestrate the ideal economic dispatching of energy generation and storage assets as well electrolizers and fuel cells. In this way, EVS is expected to be offered as software as a service, bundled with the sales of energy storage assets, or as stand-alone offering and energy storage technologies license.
Strategy
We intend to leverage our technology, competitive strengths, and remediation opportunity to establish our EVx and EVRC systems as viable solutions for short, medium, and long-term renewable energy storage solutions through the following strategies:
International Market Growth:   Our outsourced assembly and construction model supports growth, local jobs, and global execution. Our strategy involves establishing regional and country level infrastructure to support local deployments. To enable rapid adoption, initial deployments will be focused across multiple continents to have regional proof-points of the technology.
Further Expand Products and Project Related Services:   We will continue to develop our EVx platform and explore further expansion of energy storage technologies, products and project related services that are necessary to support the evolution of energy storage.
Establishing a Circular Economy in the Energy Sector:   We will continue to develop our unique approach to the circular economy by further developing remediation and recycling opportunities for energy waste materials for beneficial reuse in energy storage solutions. The two main areas we are currently exploring include:
Coal Ash Remediation Opportunity:   We continue to engage with fossil fuel energy producers to explore how coal ash that otherwise must be disposed of might be repurposed for reuse in energy storage; and
Wind Power and Gravity Storage Circular Economy:   Global clean energy-producing wind power plant capacity increased by 53% in 2020. We believe this growth will continue in the coming years. There is a need to identify circular solutions for when these plants are decommissioned and dismantled. Through the announced agreement with Enel Green Power, we intend to recycle waste materials generated by decommissioning wind turbine blades at end of life and to apply a circular economy approach toward managing the entire wind power value chain.
Focus on Software Innovations:   We will continue research and development efforts in core areas of predictive analytics, artificial intelligence (AI), industrial internet of things, control systems for improving how energy storage systems dispatch power, grid services, and network-enabled energy operations. We will pursue these technologies to enable us to optimize round-trip efficiency, to streamline operations and maintenance, and to reduce the cost of storing energy. Through EVS, we are in the early stages of exploring the potential for offering a digital platform that could help energy storage businesses make decisions on when to charge their systems and when to sell their power, as a standalone product. This software is also expected to be used for up-front simulation modeling and O&M/Asset Management Services and for the orchestration of entire energy systems.
Exploration of Co-Active Use Cases:   In addition to our core energy storage technology, we are currently exploring alternative use case opportunities for energy intensive industries such as vertical farming, data centers, blockchain mining, direct air carbon capture, that may be able to benefit from existing infrastructure, including physical enclosure and electrical supply.
Competitive Strengths
We have designed our EVx and EVRC systems to provide the following advantages compared to other forms of utility scale energy storage:
 
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Economics:   Our EVx system can be built with a competitive levelized cost of storage compared to currently available technologies in the short and medium- to long-duration storage market. The unique design leverages a mature global supply chain ecosystem which can offer a scalable solution at lower operational costs.
Performance:   Unlike chemical battery technologies, which begin to lose storage capacity immediately with cycling and require augmentation at frequent intervals, our storage medium, composite blocks, or mobile masses, do not lose their storage capacity over time and therefore mitigates the need for additional capital investment to maintain the storage medium. At 80%-85% round trip efficiency, millisecond response and an approximate 50% per second ramp rate, our EVx system also competes well with current shorter duration energy storage technologies on performance.
Duration:   Our EVx and EVRC product designs enable us to address medium and long duration storage of 4-12 or more hours to meet uniquely a large and critical market segment that cannot efficiently utilize renewable energy today. The EVx is a modular and flexible design that allows for a wide range of duration capabilities aligning with the market demand for 2-12 hour or more discharge duration. The EVRC is a larger capacity system designed to support grid resiliency and to provide emergency backup power in the instance of extreme weather and energy system outages.
Sustainability:   Our gravity energy storage is based on traditional pumped hydroelectric energy storage but was designed to remove the geological constraints and ecological disruption of pumped hydroelectric energy storage. Our mobile masses are designed to be more environmentally friendly than chemical batteries with toxic chemistries and environmentally disruptive mining requirements for raw materials. The process for manufacturing mobile masses, onsite, can use various waste material, including energy waste (materials that might otherwise be deposited in landfills), and therefore offers potential customers both an energy storage solution and a waste remediation solution.
Local Production:   Constructing the systems at the location where the hazardous waste originates, such as coal ash at a decommissioned coal plant site, is intended to mitigate the environmental issues associated with shipping and storing hazardous waste. By sourcing the materials for its mobile masses directly at the project site, our production design model aims to reduce the supply chain and transportation costs and reduce carbon emissions from the transport.
Project Delivery
Our project delivery strategy relies on engineering, procurement, construction (EPC) firms to construct our storage projects, under our supervision with dedicated teams tasked with project management. The current business model is comprised of (1) building, operating, and transferring energy storage projects to potential customers, (2) building, operating, and holding energy storage systems as equity (co-) sponsor, (3) selling energy management software as a service, and (4) entering into intellectual property licenses and royalties associated with our energy storage technologies.
Manufacturing and Customer Support
Our manufacturing, assembly and construction model is designed to support rapid growth, local jobs, and global execution. The strategy involves establishing regional and country level infrastructure to support local deployments through the EPC contracting model. For manufacturing, we will continue to collaborate with leading materials science, power electronics, motor generators and electromechanical systems providers. The Enel Green Power collaboration aims to integrate recycling of decommissioned wind turbine blades in mobile mass production. We have agreements with other third parties to provide the polymers and other composite material technology for manufacturing the mobile masses.
We plan to provide maintenance, customer support, and repair services for the entire system, including performance of regular preventative maintenance.
Research and Development
In 2018, we built a concept demonstration unit in Biasca, Switzerland to assess the feasibility of the mechanical performance, efficiency, and automated software orchestration of the gravity-based energy
 
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storage concept. This effort included concept development and testing of mix designs for future full-scale mobile masses. We utilized this phase to demonstrate the technology and identify key technical challenges. We completed various engineering studies, including seismic shake table stability analysis, accelerated mobile masses long-duration testing, and reliability studies. We also continued further software testing, which included simulations for factors such as varying weather conditions, crane deflection, cable elongation, and pendulum effect.
Further efforts to improve the technology are currently underway at the CDU in Ticino, Switzerland. We have also initiated the process to evaluate the regulatory acceptability of beneficial reuse of coal ash waste materials in gravity mobile masses manufacturing. To this end, we have conducted trial mix design and materials testing with a third-party partner and contracted a testing agency to provide the third-party leach testing of the various mix designs. Early results indicate that the beneficial reuse of coal ash in our mobile masses can be an accepted application in accordance with both federal and state environmental requirements.
Sales and Marketing
Our marketing strategy is designed to build us into a leadership brand that supports the shift from being a supplier of technology to a respected and sought-after customer partner to maximize growth. Our marketing strategy includes the following:
Brand Visibility, Awareness, and Education:   Through its branding and web marketing we communicate with a broad set of stakeholders and works to establish leadership expertise to lay the foundation for qualified customer and supplier interaction.
Drive Demand:   Our corporate outreach strategy is designed to drive demand for lead generation. We work to achieve this through web marketing and initiatives designed to accelerate the customer adoption process.
To achieve this, we employ the following:
Integrated Marketing:   We take a targeted approach to strategic integrated marketing campaigns that are designed to maximize available budget while elevating our voice within the marketplace, generate leads and close deals.
Lead Generation Model:   Our campaigns are designed to drive “a call to action” on our website to capture leads. We also engage in a range of other traditional marketing activities such as tradeshows and events, internal / partner sources, and various digital marketing activities such as website, search engine optimization, social media integration, online events and forums.
Sales Model:   Our sales model is designed to serve the full scope of the addressable market by offering our customers a choice of two programs. Under the first program, Storage Asset Owners, the customer would own both the energy storage system and the service the system provides (the energy storage and dispatch of electricity). We anticipate that this program will constitute the substantial majority of future sales and that utility companies, independent power producers and industrial customers that consume large amounts of power or are making a transition to 24/7 renewable power may be interested in being Storage Asset Owners. Under the second program, Storage Service Customers, customers such as community choice aggregators, independent power producers and utility companies would sign long-term power purchase agreements and/or tolling agreements to purchase power on a fixed dollar per kilowatt monthly or hourly basis while we and potentially other equity co-investors would retain an ownership interest in the system. In this business model, power could also be sold on a merchant market basis to take advantage of large changes in the price of electricity at different times of day.
Target Customers
Our target customers include independent power producers, government organizations, utilities, grid operators, as well as industrial and commercial organizations with sizeable electricity needs. Because of the unique advantages of gravity energy storage, we believe there can be significant demand for our systems to help address the large growth in global energy storage capacity.
 
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We have eight executed letters of intent or purchase orders and an energy storage agreement with DG Fuels LLC, or the DG Fuels Agreement, which contemplates additional sales agreements relating to the proposed projects. In addition, we are also in the early phases of discussions with 18 other opportunities.
Each purchase order and letter of intent provides the customer with the right to terminate for any reason or no reason in its sole discretion without any liability, payment, or penalty. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that any such arrangement will become a binding order, sale or committed off-take agreement or otherwise be completed on the terms described or at all. Moreover, the DG Fuels Agreement may not yield an executed sales agreement at all or as we expect. In the event an agreement is terminated, we may incur significant expenses, which we may not recover, which could have a material adverse effect on its operating results and cash flow.
In October 2021, we entered into the DG Fuels Agreement, which has the potential to generate up to $520 million in revenue across three projects, the first of which is expected to commence in mid-2022. The timing of the commencement of and payments under each project are subject to the execution of a sales agreement relating to such project, and the revenue from each project will be dependent upon the agreed upon size of the project, and the timing of such project and the performance of DG Fuels. The receipt and timing of any revenue recognition and payments from the DG Fuels Agreement will be subject to the timing and execution of sales agreements and the performance by its counterparty under such sales agreement for our energy storage systems. Any event or circumstance that delays or impairs our or our counterparty’s performance could materially adversely affect the amount or timing of revenue generated under the DG Fuels Agreement, and such revenue, if any, may be materially less than what we expect. There can be no assurance that sales agreements will be executed with respect to any of the projects, that any of such projects are completed, or that we will generate all $520 million of revenue, or any meaningful part thereof, under the DG Fuels Agreement or on the timeline it expects.
In December 2021, we entered into a Memorandum of Understanding with BHP Manganese Australia Pty. Ltd. (“BHP”) focused on studying the application of our technology to support power supply and energy storage at certain BHP operations while exploring opportunities for new applications relevant to BHP’s business. Furthermore, in December 2021, we and Sun Metals Corporation Pty. Ltd. (“Sun Metals”), a wholly owned subsidiary of Korea Zinc Co., Ltd. (“Korea Zinc”), entered into a non-binding strategic partnership agreement for renewable energy storage. The partnership supports Korea Zinc’s strategy to decarbonize their refining and smelting operations focused initially under Sun Metals. There can be no assurance that a definitive agreement with BHP or Korea Zinc or its affiliates will be executed or that we will generate any revenue from either collaboration.
In February of 2022, Energy Vault, announced a License and Royalty agreement for renewable energy storage with Atlas Renewable LLC (“Atlas Renewable”) and their majority investor China Tianying Inc., an international environmental management and waste remediation corporation engaged in smart urban environmental services, resource recycling and recovery, and zero-carbon clean energy technologies. The agreement supports the deployment of our proprietary gravity energy storage technology and energy management software platform within mainland China and the Special Administrative Regions (SAR) of Hong Kong and Macau. In addition, Atlas Renewable has agreed to pay $50 million in licensing fees, to be paid in 2022, for use and deployment of Energy Vault’s gravity energy storage technology.
To our knowledge, our agreement with Atlas Renewable represents the first gravity-based storage partnership between a U.S. and Chinese company for the deployment of the technology in China. The licensing agreement, which also marks a first of its kind for us, is for the use of our EVx and EVRC product platforms. The companies expect to start construction of the first 100MWh system in Q2 2022 at the selected site in Rudong, Jiangsu Province located outside of Shanghai. The companies will also assess the reuse of available waste materials such as coal combustion residuals, mine tailings, waste fiberglass and concrete debris as a beneficial re-use within the “mobile masses” used in the construction of the gravity energy storage systems.
Competition
The energy industry is highly competitive, and we expect competition in energy storage technology to intensify due to a regulatory push for lower-carbon energy sources such as intermittent sources such as
 
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wind and solar, continuing globalization, and consolidation in the energy industry. We believe that the principal competitive factors in the energy storage market include:

levelized cost of energy delivered;

safety, reliability and quality;

product performance;

historical track record and references for customer satisfaction;

experience in utilizing the energy storage system for multiple stakeholders;

innovation across a variety of technologies;

comprehensive solution from a single provider;

ease of integration; and

seamless hardware and software-enabled service offerings.
Our competitors are focused on the development and marketing of solutions based on technologies other than our gravity-based energy storage technology. Many of our competitors are focused on solutions based on lithium-ion battery technology although many other technologies, including thermal storage, chemical storage and hydrogen energy storage, are evolving and are in the early stages of development.
Our key competitors include battery vendors and long duration energy storage system manufacturers. Battery vendors with whom we compete such as Tesla, Inc., Fluence Energy, Inc., LG Chem, Ltd., Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd and Contemporary Amperex Technology Co. Limited have already commercialized their respective energy storage solution products. Additionally, long duration storage system manufacturers who have each announced plans and demonstrated prototypes of products that would compete in the energy storage market, include ESS Inc., Eos Energy Enterprises Inc., Hydrostor Inc. and Primus Power. Companies such as Tesla, Inc., Fluence Energy, Inc. and Wartsila Corporation are also developing energy management software.
Some of our current and potential competitors have longer operating histories and greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources than we do. These factors may allow our competitors to respond more quickly or efficiently than we can to new or emerging technologies.
These competitors may engage in more extensive research and development efforts, undertake more far-reaching marketing campaigns and adopt more aggressive pricing policies, which may allow them to more effectively compete for new energy storage projects.
We believe that our gravity-based energy storage solutions, including the EVx and EVRC platforms, will be differentiated from those of its competitors because our systems minimize environmental and supply chain risks and geological constraints of some of the energy storage technologies on the market today. For that reason, we believe we are well-positioned to compete successfully in the evolving market for energy storage solutions.
Capital Position
There has not been a material change in our liquidity or capital resources since the Closing. See the sections titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Position and Results of Operation — Liquidity and Capital Resources” and “Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information” for information relating to the impact of the Closing of the Business Combination on our financial position as of the Closing. This offering may impact our ability to raise capital on favorable terms, or at all, by selling equity or equity-linked securities because sales under this registration statement, or the possibility of sales, may negatively impact the market price of our Common Stock and because our Warrants have a dilutive impact on our Common Stock. The number of shares offered under this prospectus is substantial. In fact, the Legacy Energy Vault stockholders are offering to sell under the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part a number of shares that represents beneficial
 
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ownership of more than 54.5% of our Common Stock. Subject to applicable federal securities laws, such stockholders will be able to sell all of such shares so long as the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part is available for use.
We have not entered into, nor do we intend to enter into, any forward purchase agreements or other agreements that would provide third parties with the right to sell back shares of our Common Stock to us at a fixed price for a given period after the Closing.
Intellectual Property
We rely on a combination of patent, trademark, copyright, unfair competition, and trade secret laws, as well as confidentiality procedures and contractual restrictions with our employees, contractors and third parties, to establish, maintain and protect our proprietary rights. Our success depends in part upon our ability to obtain, maintain and enforce proprietary protection for our products, technology, and know-how, to operate without infringing the proprietary rights of others, and to prevent others from infringing our proprietary rights.
We have developed a patent portfolio to protect elements of its proprietary technology. As of September 20, 2021, we had four issued patents and nine patent applications pending in the U.S and 17 patent applications pending in other countries throughout the world. Our issued patents are expected to expire in 2039 and 2040.
Our intellectual property encompasses a diverse mix of patents with respect to our proprietary systems and software. These patents and patent applications relate to the following broad categories:

Energy Storage System and Method

Energy Storage System Using Non-Stacking Weights

Lift Drive System for Energy Storage and Delivery System
We primarily rely on copyright, trade secret laws, confidentiality procedures and contractual restrictions to protect our software. We also pursue the registration of our domain names and trademarks and service marks in the United States.
We intend to continue to assess regularly opportunities for seeking patent protection for those aspects of our technology, designs and methodologies that we believe provide a meaningful competitive advantage. However, our ability to do so may be limited until such time as we are able to generate cash flow from operations or otherwise raise sufficient capital to continue to invest in our intellectual property. For example, maintaining patents in the United States and other countries requires the payment of maintenance fees, which may result in loss of our patent rights if we are unable to pay. If we are unable to so invest in our intellectual property, our ability to protect it or prevent others from infringing on our proprietary rights may be impaired.
Government Regulation and Compliance
Although we are not regulated as a utility, federal, state and local government statutes and regulations concerning electricity heavily influence the market for our product and services. These statutes and regulations often relate to electricity pricing, net metering, incentives, taxation, competition with utilities and the interconnection of customer-owned electricity generation. In the United States, governments continuously modify these statutes and regulations. Governments, often acting through state utility or public service commissions, change and adopt different rates for commercial customers on a regular basis. These changes could affect our ability to deliver cost savings to future customers for the purchase of electricity.
Several states have an energy storage mandate or policies designed to encourage the adoption of storage. Storage installations are supported in certain states by state public utility commission policies that require utilities to consider alternatives such as storage before they can build new generation facility. In February 2018, the Federal Energy Regulation Commission (FERC) issued Order 841 directing regional transmission operators and independent system operators to remove barriers to the participation of storage in wholesale electricity markets and to establish rules to help ensure storage resources are compensated for the services
 
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they provide. An appeal of Order 841 filed by utility trade associations and other parties challenging the extent of FERC’s jurisdiction over storage resources connected to distribution systems (among other issues) is currently pending before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit.
Each of our installations or customer installations must be designed, constructed, and operated in compliance with applicable federal, state and local regulations, codes, standards, guidelines, policies, and laws. To install and operate energy storage systems on its platform, we, our customers or our partners, as applicable, are required to obtain applicable permits and approvals from local authorities having jurisdiction to install energy storage systems and to interconnect the systems with the local electrical utility.
Energy storage systems require interconnection agreements from the applicable local electricity utilities in order to operate. In almost all cases, interconnection agreements are standard form agreements that have been pre-approved by the local public utility commission or other regulatory body with jurisdiction over interconnection agreements. As such, no additional regulatory approvals are typically required once interconnection agreements are signed.
Our operations are subject to stringent and complex federal, state and local laws, and regulations governing the occupational health and safety of our employees and wage regulations. For example, we are subject to the requirements of the federal Occupational Safety and Health Act, as amended, and comparable state laws that protect and regulate employee health and safety.
There are government regulations pertaining to the disposal of hazardous materials. We and our suppliers, as applicable, are required to comply with these regulations to sell our systems into the market.
Employees
Our stakeholders and employees have a shared passion to combat climate change through innovation in energy storage technologies. Our employees typically have significant industry experience in their respective areas of focus. As of December 31, 2021, we employed 73 full-time employees and 1 part-time employee, based primarily in our offices in Lugano, Switzerland, Westlake Village, California and Tysons Corner, Virginia. To date, we have not experienced any work stoppages and consider our employee relations to be in good standing. None of our employees are either represented by a labor union or subject to a collective bargaining agreement.
Formation of Strategic Advisory Board
We have formed a new Strategic Advisory Board (SAB) . The inaugural SAB includes representatives from CEMEX Ventures (NYSE: CX), BHP Ventures (NYSE: BHP), Saudi Aramco Energy Ventures (TADAWUL: SAUDI ARAMCO), Enel Green Power (ENEL.MI), PlusVolta, Pickering Energy Partners, Ark Energy Corporation Pty Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of Korea Zinc (KRX 010130), a strategic investor in Energy Vault, and Atlas Renewable. The SAB will meet formally every quarter to review the most relevant technology and market trends, and the intersection of these trends with Energy Vault’s own technology and strategic roadmap in order to optimize our energy storage solution focus and longer-term strategic evolution.
Properties
We have offices in Westlake Village, California and Lugano, Switzerland, with the Switzerland office serving as our international headquarters. The Lugano facility is under a month-to-month lease. The Westlake Village facility consist of approximately 15,767 square feet, and our current lease at the Westlake Village office was renewed and expanded from 7,700 square feet on December 1, 2021. The lease expires in November 2028.
Legal Proceedings
We have been and continue to be involved in legal proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of business, the outcome of which, if determined adversely to us, would not individually or in the aggregate have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. From time to time, we may become involved in additional legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of its business.
 
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MANAGEMENT
The table below lists our directors, executive officers and other key personnel, together with each person’s age as of the date of this prospectus and any other position that such person holds.
Name
Age
Position
Executive Officers
Robert Piconi
51
Chief Executive Officer and Director
David Hitchcock
61